Cases reported "Necrosis"

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1/128. Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland with extensive tumor necrosis: a case report.

    Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland is rarely associated with tumor necrosis. We report a case of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland with extensive necrosis. An 82-year-old man had had a right neck mass for more than 10 years. Approximately two to three weeks before he was hospitalized, this neck mass became progressively enlarged. An 131I scan could not demonstrate the right lobe of the thyroid gland, while the contralateral lobe was unremarkable. A 99mTc-sestamibi scan showed increased uptake on the lesion side. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed necrosis with macrophages in the initial aspirate, and the secondary aspirate appeared suspicious for a Hurthle cell tumor. The patient had a total thyroidectomy, and the pathology proved to be Hurthle cell carcinoma with tumor necrosis.
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2/128. head and neck reconstruction using lateral thigh free flap: flap design.

    Eleven lateral thigh free flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction, transferred on the basis of the second perforator as well as the third perforator of the profunda femoris artery. The lateral thigh free flap was useful and reliable in head and neck reconstruction and was versatile in flap design. Due to the wide cutaneous territory of the lateral thigh flap, the skin island could be designed freely in the lateral thigh region. Careful patient selection is mandatory for good results. The pinch test and an understanding of the variety of subcutaneous thicknesses in the lateral thigh region are helpful in designing a skin island of adequate thickness. Other considerations in flap design are discussed.
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3/128. Small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of two cases.

    Two Taiwanese patients with gallbladder small cell carcinoma are reported. One is a 79 year-old male, the other, a 86 year-old female. They both presented with the symptom/signs of acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. An intramural mass in the gallbladder neck region was found in the first patient, while the second patient had a transmural indurated tumor in the gallbladder body with extension to the neck region. Characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features of small cell carcinoma were present in both, and electron dense neurosecretory granules were identified in the second. To our knowledge, the second patient is the oldest ever reported. The first patient received chemotherapy directed toward the initial erroneous diagnosis of non-Hodgkin s lymphoma and developed liver metastasis in two months. The second patient did not receive chemotherapy due to her poor general condition and local recurrence occurred in six weeks. Both passed away three and five months after surgery, respectively.
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4/128. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: report of a case.

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an odontogenic infection. He presented with a fever, signs of sepsis, and neck swelling, and was initially diagnosed as having a neck abscess. After cervical drainage, he showed no improvement, and mediastinitis was detected by chest X-ray and computed tomography. A thoracotomy and mediastinal drainage was subsequently performed for descending necrotizing mediastinitis, which resulted in marked improvement. To date, only 83 cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis have been reported in japan. We present herein an additional case, followed by a review of the Japanese literature.
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5/128. A fatal case of craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    A case of fatal craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis is described in a 72-year-old diabetic woman and management is discussed. Progressive infection of the eyelids occurred with involvement of the right side of the face. Computed tomography revealed soft tissue swelling. Antibiotic treatment was started and debridement performed; histopathology showed acute inflammation and thrombosis of the epidermis and dermis. Despite treatment, scepticemia occurred, resulting in death less than 48 h after presentation. At this time extensive necrosis had developed in the superficial fascia with undermining and gangrene of surrounding tissues. streptococcus and staphylococcus were the pathogens involved. Poor prognosis in similar patients has been associated with extensive infection, involvement of the lower face and neck, delayed treatment, advanced age, diabetes and vascular disease.
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6/128. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis with sternocostoclavicular osteomyelitis and partial thoracic empyema: report of a case.

    We present herein the case of a 50-year-old woman in whom descending necrotizing mediastinitis originating from an anterior neck abscess spread to the left upper bony thorax, resulting in osteomyelitis of the left sternocostoclavicular articulation and left partial thoracic empyema. Transcervical mediastinal irrigation and drainage was performed with aggressive antibiotic therapy, followed by resection of the left sternocostoclavicular joint and debridement of the anterior mediastinum. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and her left arm and shoulder mobility was well preserved.
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7/128. Progressive necrotic myelopathy: clinical course in 9 patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of 9 patients who had progressive idiopathic myelopathy with evidence of spinal cord necrosis. DESIGN AND methods: We reviewed personally examined cases of myelopathy that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) regional loss of reflexes, flaccidity, and muscle atrophy; (2) magnetic resonance imaging showing a shrunken or cavitated cord without evidence of arteriovenous malformation; (3) electromyogram showing denervation over several contiguous spinal cord sgements with preservation of sensory potentials in some cases; and (4) the absence of evidence of systemic disease or neoplasm. RESULTS: The illness began in these patients after the age of 40 years, with prominent burning or tingling limb pain, occasionally with radicular features or with less well-defined back, neck, or abdominal pain. Leg or infrequently arm weakness appeared concurrently or soon after the onset of pain. The most distinctive feature was a saltatory progression of symptoms, punctuated by both acute and subacute worsenings approximately every 3 to 9 months, culminating in paraplegia or tetraplegia. The distinguishing clinical findings, together indicative of destruction of gray matter elements of the cord, were limb atrophy, persistent areflexia, and flaccidity. The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid protein was typically elevated between 500 g/L and 1000 g/L, without oligoclonal bands, accompanied infrequently by pleocytosis. magnetic resonance imaging showed features suggesting cord necrosis, specifically swelling, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and gadolinium enhancement over several spinal cord segments, succeeded months later by atrophy in the same regions. necrosis of the cord was found in biopsy material from one patient and postmortem pathology in another case, but inflammation and blood vessel abnormalities were absent. Only 2 patients had prolonged visual evoked responses. The disease progressed despite immune-modulating treatments although several patients had brief epochs of limited improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The saltatory course, prolonged visual evoked responses in 2 patients, and a cranial abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging in another, raised the possibility of a link to multiple sclerosis. However, the normal cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans in 6 other patients, uniformly absent oligoclonal bands, and poor response to treatment were atypical for multiple sclerosis. On the basis of shared clinical and laboratory features, idiopathic progressive necrotic myelopathy is indistinguishable from a limited form of Devic disease.
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8/128. Acute encephalopathy with bilateral striatal necrosis: favourable response to corticosteroid therapy.

    A case of acute encephalopathy with selective bilateral symmetrical striatal lesions is reported. The patient was a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who became obtunded after a febrile illness and fell into a state of delirium with severe pain in the feet. He showed abnormal postures: hyperextension of the neck and upper limbs and extreme flexion of both lower limbs, and abnormal involuntary movements of the limbs: tremor, athetotic movement and right hemiballismus. Analysis of serum antibody titres suggested recent primary infection of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1). Cranial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated areas of high-signal intensity involving the whole basal ganglia bilaterally. He showed rapid clinical improvement after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy; complete clinical recovery was noted 3 months after the onset. Serial MRI studies demonstrated a rapid reduction of the lesions, resulting in only slight T2-hyperintense areas in both caudate nuclei. The pathogenesis of the disorder remains unknown, though an autoimmune mechanism has been speculated. The clinical and laboratory findings in this case suggested a possible role of HSV-1 in the pathomechanism of the disorder and a beneficial effect of early corticosteroid therapy.
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9/128. Lipid and giant cell poor necrobiotic xanthogranuloma.

    An 88-year-old man over a 7-month period developed multiple yellow firm focally ulcerative papules and nodules over his face, neck and forearms. Seven skin biopsies showed a diffuse infiltrate of epithelioid histiocytes associated with areas of necrosis with neutrophilia. Two biopsies showed xanthogranulomatous foci, but cholesterol clefts, prominent giant cells or lymphoid aggregates were not evident. necrosis with leukocytoclastic debris overshadowed the presence of hyaline necrobiosis. Ultrastructural examination and oil red-o stains on frozen sections revealed focal lipid vacuoles within histiocytes. A paraprotein was detected in the patient's serum. This presentation may represent a lipid and giant cell poor variant of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) and may potentially lead to a delay in diagnosis.
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10/128. radiation-induced rhombencephalopathy.

    We report the case of a patient who underwent radiotherapy of the neck because of an epidermoid carcinoma in Rosenmuller's fossa. Eleven months later, T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a bulbo-pontine lesion, and the clinical course and sequential MRI results led to a diagnosis of radionecrosis-induced rhombencephalopathy. At a distance of more than three years, the lesion is no longer visible on MRI images but the severe neurological deficits remain. The clinical picture has not been improved by treatment with prednisone, hyperbaric oxygen, symptomatic therapies or anticoagulants.
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