Cases reported "Necrosis"

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1/328. Anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis in a patient with hereditary deficiency of protein s.

    skin necrosis is a rare but debilitating complication of treatment with vitamin k antagonist anticoagulants such as warfarin. A clinically similar syndrome has been reported less frequently with heparin therapy. We recently managed a thirty-year-old female patient who developed skin necrosis on her left lower extremity while on warfarin for postpartum DVT. The lesions started to develop 48 hr after stopping heparin therapy. Discontinuation of warfarin and reinstitution of heparin was complicated by a rapid decrease in platelet count consistent with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and its associated risk of platelet activation and thrombosis. The diagnosis was supported by the identification of antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes in the patient's serum. The platelet count recovered and the patient improved after switching to therapy with the heparinoid danaparoid. Evaluation for a hypercoagulable state revealed a partial deficiency of protein s, a condition that previously was identified in two of her family members. It is not clear if this patient suffered from warfarin-induced skin necrosis, a manifestation of heparin-mediated platelet activation, or a complex condition in which both drugs contributed. HIT may affect 1-3% of patients who receive unfractionated heparin, and this case raises the possibility that heparin may contribute to, or cause, some episodes of skin necrosis attributed to warfarin. Because many patients who develop warfarin-induced skin necrosis have been treated initially with heparin, it would seem prudent to consider HIT in these situations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/328. Cutaneous necrosis as a terminal paraneoplastic thromboembolic event in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Thrombotic complications in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma often originate in the large veins. We describe a patient with refractory advanced high-grade lymphoma who presented with the rare complication of extensive cutaneous necrosis due to thrombosis of dermal vessels; there was also a recent new peak of monoclonal IgM-kappa protein. Direct immunofluorescence demonstrated immune deposits with complement in the dermal vessel wall. Based on these observations and on published data, we suggest that these complexes were the trigger for the thrombotic events and that the monoclonal IgM acted as xenoreactive antibodies, initiating a cascade of events. The first step of this cascade was activation of the complement and the membrane attack complex, which caused secretion of IL-1 alpha by endothelial cells, followed by overexpression of tissue factor on the surface of the dermal vessel wall endothelium. Dermal vessel thrombosis was the final event in this cascade.
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ranking = 2.021565087012
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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3/328. enzyme therapy in gaucher disease type 2: an autopsy case.

    A Japanese patient with gaucher disease type 2 was treated with enzyme therapy, alglucerase, from 7 to 22 months of age. Whereas hematologic parameters were normalized and hepatosplenomegaly was alleviated, no improvement in neurologic symptoms occurred, and the patient died of respiratory failure at age 22 months. Postmortem examination revealed massive intra-alveolar infiltration of Gaucher cells in lungs and in the central nervous system, i.e., the presence of Gaucher cells in the perivascular Virchow-Robins spaces in the cortex and deep white matter and extensive lamilar necrosis with reactive proliferation of blood vessels and macrophage infiltration of the cerebral cortex. It is suggested that enzyme therapy, with thus far recommended dose, does not prevent long-term respiratory and central nervous system involvement in severe varients of Gaucher disease.
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ranking = 0.021782914791697
keywords = deep
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4/328. Ischemic necrosis of bile ducts complicating Schonlein-Henoch purpura.

    Gastrointestinal complications of Schonlein-Henoch purpura are frequent and sometimes severe. However, there seem to be no reports of liver involvement. A child is described in whom Schonlein-Henoch purpura was complicated by bile duct lesions, resulting in biliary cirrhosis and requiring liver transplantation. At surgical removal, the liver had lesions of bile ducts and of adjacent small blood vessels in the hilum, very similar to those complicating hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation. These findings suggest that Schonlein-Henoch purpura can be complicated by vasculitis of the peribiliary vessels resulting in ischemic necrosis of the bile ducts. Schonlein-Henoch purpura can be added to the list of causes of ischemic cholangiopathies.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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5/328. rectum and sigmoid colon necrosis due to cholesterol embolization after implantation of an aortic stent-graft.

    Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) with stent-grafts is increasingly performed. Recent studies have shown that stent-graft placement for AAA is technically feasible and can effectively exclude aneurysms from the circulation. However, complications related to the procedure, such as graft thrombosis, migration of the prosthesis, peripheral embolization, and leaks with incomplete exclusion of the aneurysmal sac, have been reported. We report a case of rectum and sigmoid colon necrosis with fatal outcome due to cholesterol embolization after implantation of a stent-graft for an infrarenal AAA.
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keywords = thrombosis
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6/328. Confirmation of arterial deficiencies in a limb with necrosis following clubfoot surgery.

    This study describes postoperative necrosis of the hallux and first ray in a child with clubfoot. Arteriography performed on this child's lower limbs demonstrated, in the operated leg, hypoplasia of both the anterior and posterior tibial arteries and failure of the dorsalis pedis artery to traverse the tarsus and complete the deep plantar arch. Previously, congenital vascular deficiency was suggested to predispose such operated limbs to necrosis. These findings confirm the association between vascular deficiency and necrosis. In this present study, the metabolic demands of wound healing were sufficient in a limb with vascular deficiency to cause localized distal hypoperfusion leading to cyanosis and necrosis of the hallux and medial foot.
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ranking = 0.021782914791697
keywords = deep
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7/328. skin necrosis induced by extravasation of glycerol-containing peripheral parenteral nutrition formulation.

    Administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) via a peripheral vein has gained support over the last decade due to serious complications associated with central venous catheterization. Extravasation and tissue necrosis have been reported with both peripheral and central dextrose-containing PN formulations. The following case report represents the first documented case of skin necrosis due to extravasation of a glycerol-containing PN formulation. Our patient's condition resolved with local therapy such as elevation of the affected extremity and cold compresses. Routine evaluation of proper catheter placement is recommended to prevent this serious morbid event, while various treatment recommendations are outlined for severe injuries that do not respond to general measures such as cold compresses.
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ranking = 0.021565087012045
keywords = vein
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8/328. Congenital ischemic forearm necrosis associated with a compound presentation.

    An infant born in a compound presentation had ischemic forearm necrosis requiring amputation. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis predating labor and delivery was also diagnosed. The possibility of congenital ischemic necrosis in an extremity should not affect the obstetrical management of compound presentation, but if this complication occurs a search for an underlying coagulopathy is important.
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ranking = 1.0526970825374
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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9/328. Adrenal vein thromboses in an infant of diabetic mother.

    Maternal diabetes is common condition complicating pregnancy and may have serious consequences for the offspring. We report on an infant of a mother with multisubstance abuse and poorly controlled type I diabetes with complications that include multifocal fetal myocardial infarcts, macrosomia, hypoxic encephalopathy and islet cell hyperplasia, and bilateral adrenal vein thromboses with necrosis, a relatively rare complication of maternal diabetes.
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ranking = 0.10782543506022
keywords = vein
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10/328. cricoid cartilage necrosis after arytenoidectomy in a previously irradiated larynx.

    Several open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to provide an adequate airway for patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Transoral laser arytenoidectomy has repeatedly been reported to be a reliable and effective minimally invasive procedure for airway restoration. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of serious complications, other than poor vocal results, aspiration, and failed decannulation in individual patients, that have resulted from this intervention. We report a case in which arytenoidectomy led to severe complications and death. Prior irradiation is suspected to be a causative factor. To prevent such an outcome, we believe that operative settings should be chosen that avoid deep thermal injury of the laryngeal framework.
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ranking = 0.021782914791697
keywords = deep
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