Cases reported "Needlestick Injuries"

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1/22. Transient detection of plasma hiv-1 rna during postexposure prophylaxis.

    Transient plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) copies were detected by nucleic-acid sequence-based amplification during combination antiretroviral prophylaxis in a healthcare worker who reported a percutaneous injury from a stylet and who remained HIV-antibody-negative. An HIV-specific T-helper response, assessed by interleukin-2 production, was observed when tested at 13 months following the exposure.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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2/22. neck needle foreign bodies: an added risk for autopsy pathologists.

    The risk to pathologists of contracting diseases due to cuts or needles punctures while performing autopsies is well known. An additional risk is an accidental needle puncture due to retained needle fragments within the subcutaneous tissues or internal organs of intravenous drug addicts. We report 4 cases of drug addicted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus who came to autopsy and had retained needle fragments within their cervical-clavicular soft tissues. The presence of retained needle fragments increases the risk to the autopsy pathologist of accidental needle puncture and exposure to disease. Because of this phenomenon, the pathologist should take precautions in addition to those currently prescribed when performing autopsies on possible drug abusers.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = exposure
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3/22. Lipid abnormalities in a healthcare worker receiving HIV prophylaxis.

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide risk occupational exposure to HIV and other blood-borne pathogens. post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) may decrease the risk of seroconversion after occupational or sexual exposure. Current guidelines recommend immediate PEP with at least 2 drugs following HIV exposure. In high-risk exposures, the guidelines recommend the use of a protease inhibitor (PI) as well as 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. protease inhibitors have been associated with dyslipidaemias, other metabolic abnormalities and lipodystrophy syndromes in AIDS patients. We report a case of new transient lipid abnormalities in a HCW receiving PEP after HIV exposure. HIV medications may produce occult metabolic abnormalities in HIV-negative individuals receiving PEP. This risk should be considered during follow-up evaluation for PEP.
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ranking = 243.31828105912
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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4/22. Seroconversion to hiv-1 following a needlestick injury despite combination post-exposure prophylaxis.

    post-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs for at-risk needlestick injuries has become routine practice and is usually empirical. With increasing numbers of treatment-experienced patients, the choice of antiretroviral may need to be individually tailored. infection can still occur despite attempts to optimize the drug combination used.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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5/22. Needlestick transmission of hepatitis c.

    hepatitis c virus (HCV) transmission following a needlestick is an important threat to health care workers. We present the case of a 29-year-old medical intern who sustained a needlestick injury from a source patient known to be infected with both human immunodeficiency virus and HCV. The case patient subsequently developed acute HCV infection. The optimal strategy for diagnosing HCV infection after occupational exposures has not been defined. At a minimum, HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase testing should be done within several days of exposure (to assess if the health care worker is already infected with HCV) and 6 months after percutaneous, mucosal, or nonintact skin exposure to blood or infectious body fluids from an HCV-infected patient. Currently, it is not possible to prevent HCV infection after exposure. However, recent data suggest that early treatment of acute HCV infection with interferon alpha may be highly effective in preventing chronic HCV infection. These data underscore the importance of identifying persons with acute HCV infection and promptly referring them to experienced clinicians who can provide updated counseling and treatment.
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ranking = 242.91828105912
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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6/22. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV after an occupational exposure despite postexposure prophylaxis with a combination drug regimen.

    We documented a case of occupational human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) despite postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with a combination drug regimen after percutaneous injury with a needle from a sharps disposal container in the hospital room of an HIV-infected patient. This failure of PEP with a combination drug regimen may have been related to antiretroviral drug resistance, other factors, or both. This case highlights the importance of preventing injury to prevent occupational transmission of HIV.
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ranking = 970.27312423649
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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7/22. The first case of AIDS due to occupational exposure in brazil.

    The first case of AIDS due to occupational exposure in brazil is described. The accident occurred in 1994 and the health care worker was classified as AIDS-positive with unidentified risk in 1997. The correct classification as occupational exposure occurred after an epidemiological investigation conducted in 1999.
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ranking = 1453.9096863547
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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8/22. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia with indinavir.

    indinavir is a protease inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV infected individuals and as post-exposure prophylaxis. indinavir is associated with various adverse effects including gastrointestinal, a lipodystrophy syndrome and nephrolithiasis. We describe indirect hyperbilirubinemia as an adverse effect of indinavir in a person on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = exposure
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9/22. Reported seroconversions to human immunodeficiency virus among workers worldwide--a review.

    The authors undertook a review of published articles on reported worldwide seroconversions to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among workers who sustained occupational exposure to HIV. Documented seroconversions are occupational exposures for which the worker is tested and found negative for HIV antibody shortly after the exposure (usually within 30 days). The worker may develop symptoms of a retroviral illness, and seroconversion occurs usually within six months. In all cases the worker is interviewed to determine that there were no other risk factors for infection. review of the literature identified 16 parenteral exposures (needlesticks or cuts with a sharp object), two mucous membrane exposures, two nonintact skin exposures and one cutaneous exposure to infected blood or body fluids.
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ranking = 485.63656211825
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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10/22. Haemodynamic crisis and reversible multiorgan failure caused by HIV post-exposure prophylaxis after needle-stick injury in a health care worker.

    We report the case of a 59-year-old nurse from our HIV ward who developed a severe haemodynamic crisis with concomitant acute multiorgan failure after initiation of a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with zidovudine/lamivudine (CombivirTM) and lopinavir/ritonavir (KaletraTM) after a needle-stick injury with an HIV-contaminated needle. Although serious and life-threatening adverse effects of post-exposure prophylaxis have been documented in several cases, this is the first report of a severe acute cardiovascular incident following PEP initiation.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = exposure
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