Cases reported "needlestick injuries"

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1/96. A rare complication of renal biopsy in a child with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    Percutaneous renal biopsy is essential for the definitive diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis. Large arteriovenous fistula (AVF) which is a rare complication of native renal biopsy is generally diagnosed in the first weeks after the procedure. We present a childhood membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis case with an enormous AVF presenting with severe hypertension 15 months after the biopsy that was successfully embolized. In conclusion, AVF must be considered in children having chronic glomerulonephritides even if hypertension appears late after the renal biopsy. ( info)

2/96. Brainstem anesthesia presenting as dysarthria.

    After having a retrobulbar injection for anesthesia before cataract surgery, a patient developed dysarthria. This was the presenting sign for penetration of the optic nerve sheath by the retrobulbar injection, with subsequent brainstem anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient demonstrated cranial nerve dysfunctions with tongue deviation, tachycardia, hypertension, and contralateral sixth and third nerve palsies. I believe this is the first documented case in which dysarthria is the presenting sign for brainstem anesthesia resulting from a retrobulbar injection. ( info)

3/96. Catastrophic arterial reactivity during primary antiphospholipid syndrome--a case report.

    Arterial reactivity leading to acute thrombosis at the site of a needle stick injury has never been described during antiphospholipid syndrome. The authors report a case characterized by a succession of thrombotic events occurring during or immediately after arterial angiographies or arterial surgery, in which catastrophic arterial reactivity can be strongly suspected. In this particular patient, it can be postulated that damage to the endothelial cells of the vessels injured during manipulation may have precipitated or aggravated the preexisting susceptibility to thrombosis. ( info)

4/96. Bisected macula following retrobulbar steroid injection.

    A case of bilateral accidental globe penetration during administration of retrobulbar steroid for bilateral optic neuritis is discussed. One eye with bisected macula was managed successfully by vitrectomy, internal gas tamponade, and postoperative laser to the edges of the retinal tear. The fellow eye was blind due to central retinal artery occlusion. ( info)

5/96. Transient detection of plasma hiv-1 rna during postexposure prophylaxis.

    Transient plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) copies were detected by nucleic-acid sequence-based amplification during combination antiretroviral prophylaxis in a healthcare worker who reported a percutaneous injury from a stylet and who remained HIV-antibody-negative. An HIV-specific T-helper response, assessed by interleukin-2 production, was observed when tested at 13 months following the exposure. ( info)

6/96. Potential role of famciclovir for prevention of herpetic whitlow in the health care setting.

    Oral famciclovir was initiated in a health care worker immediately after an accidental percutaneous injury involving a needle freshly removed from a patient's herpes labialis vesicles. In follow-up, the health care worker remained seronegative for herpes simplex I and II antibodies (IgG and IgM) and did not develop herpetic whitlow, supporting the potential role of famciclovir in the prevention of herpetic whitlow in a health care setting. ( info)

7/96. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a case of HBV infection acquired through a needlestick accident.

    To elucidate needlestick transmission of hepatitis b virus (HBV), strains isolated from 1 physician who acquired HBV infection through a needlestick accident and 3 patients with chronic hepatitis B (donor patients A, B, and C) were tested using molecular evolutionary analysis based on full-length HBV genomic sequences. Nucleotide sequences of these isolates were aligned with 55 previously reported full-length genomic sequences. Genetic distances were estimated using the 6-parameter method, and phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Strains isolated from patient A and the recipient pair were clustered within a closer range of evolutionary distances than were strains recovered from the recipient pair and patients B and C. Furthermore, strains from patient A and the recipient were also clustered on the S gene sequences of HBV. These results demonstrated that patient A alone was the source of direct transmission to the recipient. This approach can be used to investigate the transmission route of HBV. ( info)

8/96. Traumatic intramuscular orbital haemorrhage.

    Retrobulbar haemorrhage is an uncommon but well-documented complication of retrobulbar anaesthetic blocks in ocular surgery. Peribulbar anaesthesia has been advocated to be equally effective but safer. The incidence of retrobulbar haemorrhage with peribulbar blocks is very low. We report a case in which a peribulbar anaesthetic for cataract surgery resulted in sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage within the medial rectus muscle and required an anterior orbitotomy and direct decompression of the muscle. The surgery was successful. This case illustrates a potentially serious complication of peribulbar anaesthesia, with the successful outcome achieved by rapid definitive diagnosis and intervention. ( info)

9/96. Eradication of hepatitis c virus 1b by interferon in a health care worker with acute hepatitis following needlestick transmission from a patient with chronic hepatitis c unresponsive to interferon.

    hepatitis c virus (HCV) was successfully eradicated by a short course of interferon (IFN) therapy in a nurse with acute HCV infection from a needlestick accident. The source patient had chronic hepatitis c and was a nonresponder to IFN therapy. The HCV genotype was 1b in patients, and a single point mutation (H-->R in amino acid 2218) was observed in the IFN sensitivity-determining region of the nonstructural 5A gene, in comparison with sequences of HCV-J, in HCV rna from both the source patient (before and after IFN therapy) and the recipient (before IFN therapy). Though the strain transmitted was believed to be IFN-resistant in the patient with chronic hepatitis, the patient with acute hepatitis had a sustained response. ( info)

10/96. neck needle foreign bodies: an added risk for autopsy pathologists.

    The risk to pathologists of contracting diseases due to cuts or needles punctures while performing autopsies is well known. An additional risk is an accidental needle puncture due to retained needle fragments within the subcutaneous tissues or internal organs of intravenous drug addicts. We report 4 cases of drug addicted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus who came to autopsy and had retained needle fragments within their cervical-clavicular soft tissues. The presence of retained needle fragments increases the risk to the autopsy pathologist of accidental needle puncture and exposure to disease. Because of this phenomenon, the pathologist should take precautions in addition to those currently prescribed when performing autopsies on possible drug abusers. ( info)
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