Cases reported "Neoplasm Metastasis"

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1/13. Adoptive therapy of canine metastatic mammary carcinoma with the human MHC non-restricted cytotoxic T-cell line TALL-104.

    adoptive transfer of human TALL-104 killer cells into a dog with metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma resulted in 50% reduction of the largest lung metastasis and stabilization of the other lesions for 10 weeks, accompanied by the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Upon halting cell therapy, the dog developed new lung lesions within 10 weeks and died of slowly progressive disease. TALL-104 cell therapy of mice bearing the dog's tumor xenograft induced 65% reduction of local tumor growth and regression of lung metastases in 100% of the animals. The overall findings indicate the therapeutic potential of TALL-104 cells for canine mammary tumors.
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keywords = animal
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2/13. Animal type melanoma: a report of a case with balloon-cell change and sentinel lymph node metastasis.

    Animal type melanoma is a rare histopathologic variant of melanoma characterized by sheets and nodules of heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes that involve the entire thickness of the dermis. This human neoplasm mimics melanocytic neoplasms seen in gray horses and laboratory animals; thus, is termed animal type melanoma. It is quite rare and, with only a few reported cases, its biological behavior is not well understood. We report an example of animal type melanoma on the back of a 27-year-old man. The lesion showed areas of melanoma in situ, which ruled out the possibility of metastatic melanoma. Features of regression were also seen at dermo-epidermal junction and papillary dermis. In some areas, neoplastic melanocytes exhibited a balloon-cell appearance; in others the neoplasm was composed of sheets and fascicles of heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes that permeated the entire dermis and extended into the dermal-subcutaneous interface, mimicking a cellular blue nevus. Epithelioid melanocytes in deeper areas showed abundant, heavily pigmented cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei with prominent eosinophilic nucleoli and some mitotic figures. The neoplastic cells did not show evidence of maturation in deeper areas of the lesion. In some sections, a nodule of heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes was seen far from the main bulk of the lesion, at the dermal-subcutaneous interface, raising the possibility of a satellite lesion. A lymphoscintigraphy showed a sentinel lymph node in the right axilla and a subsequent axillary lymphadenectomy demonstrated that the architecture of the sentinel lymph node was effaced by metastatic melanoma. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with inteferon alfa-2b and four months after this treatment the patient is alive and well, without evidence of recurrences or additional metastases.
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ranking = 3
keywords = animal
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3/13. Ampullary carcinoma in a group of aged rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Ampullary carcinoma was diagnosed in 6 rhesus macaques that ranged in age from 20 to 35 years. Signalment, premonitory signs of disease, and results of clinical biochemical and hematologic analyses varied among animals. Histologically, the neoplastic cells obliterated the ampulla, with regional spread to the duodenum in all 6 animals and to the pancreas in one animal. Two animals had metastases to the lung, and another two had metastases to the pancreoduodenal lymph nodes and liver. One animal had mesocolonic metastasis. Malignant tumors of the ampullary region are rare in domestic animals, and account for less than 5% of all cancers of the digestive tract in humans.
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4/13. Possible modification of metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the prostate by colchicine: a case report.

    Laboratory data indicate that colchicine has an antimetastatic effect in tissue culture and in tumor-transplantation experiments in animals. The present case report reveals a lack of perineural and capsular invasion as well as distant metastases from a large adenocarcinoma of the prostate in a 63-year-old patient who had taken colchicine daily for 25 years prior to lesion discovery. Failure to demonstrate metastasis was unexpected both because of lesion size (estimated volume 4.4 ml) as well as its histopathology (Gleason pattern 3S, grade 6). colchicine may have inhibited metastasis of activated Ki-ras oncogenes during oncogenesis along neural microtubules in the area because of the known inhibitory effect of this drug on particle transport along the microtubule component of the cytoskeleton. colchicine at therapeutic doses for gout may simultaneously inhibit metastasis of other types of malignancies in man.
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5/13. Demonstration of an FSH receptor in a functioning granulosa cell tumour. The effect of gonadotrophin treatment on its viability following transplantation to nude mice.

    Hormone production in a patient suffering from a late recurrence of a granulosa cell tumour has been studied pre- and post-operatively, and a vein on the tumour surface was cannulated at operation to collect tumour vein blood for pre-operative studies. Elevation in the plasma oestradiol level and depression in FSH and LH were found pre-operatively, and elevations were found in tumour vein oestradiol and 17alpha-hydroxyprogsterone. plasma oestradiol level returned to normal postoperatively whereas FSH and LH levels were persistently depressed. FSH receptors were found in this tumour, and on the basis of this finding, gonadotrophins were given to athymic nude mice in an attempt to support the growth of the granulosa cell tumour implanted in these animals. We demonstrated that gonadotrophins have supported the tumour tissue, but not promoted growth.
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6/13. Pseudosarcomatous stromal reaction in primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma. A source of diagnostic difficulty.

    We report five urothelial carcinomas (one primary and four metastatic) with pseudosarcomatous stromal reaction. The exuberant stromal reaction led to a histologic misdiagnosis in three of the original small biopsy specimens. The differential diagnoses of primary spindle cell lesions of urinary tract include spindle cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, sarcoma, and benign pseudosarcomatous lesions. The distinction between those conditions and urothelial carcinomas with pseudosarcomatous stromal reaction is obviously of great clinical significance. In an initial small biopsy specimen, it may be difficult to make such a distinction. Immunostaining for cytokeratin and examination of more material should be performed. In our study of metastatic urothelial carcinomas with pseudosarcomatous stromal reaction, clinicopathologic correlations along with immunostaining for keratin proved to be useful. The stromal inductive capability of transplanted urothelium, which has been established in animal experiments, has occasionally also been reported in humans. The malignant urothelium in humans similarly appears to be capable of inducing stromal reaction.
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keywords = animal
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7/13. A histological assessment of the four-day subrenal capsule assay (SRCA).

    A four-day subrenal capsule assay (SRCA) was developed, since fragments of human tumours implanted under the renal capsule of immunocompetent mice became rejected by the host within six days. The assay requires a histological assessment of both its exploitability and the extent of drug-induced anti-tumour lesions. 45 tumours from 43 patients with solid tumour were submitted to an SRCA in 1410 male B6D2F1 mice. After being biopsied each tumour was dissected by a pathologist, cut into 50 pieces (1.5 mm3), and one piece was implanted under the renal capsule of 35 mice; the mean tumour diameter was measured on day 0. The mice were randomized into groups of 6 to 10 animals each. On days 1, 2 and 3, the mice were treated with either placebo (control group) or with various anticancer agents. On day 4 the animals were sacrificed, the mean tumour diameter measured, the tumour bearing kidney fixed in Bouin's picroformol solution and processed for histological analysis after staining with hematein. Fragments of fresh explants of human tumours retained their proliferative and metabolic capacity: mitoses were observed as well as keratinizing cells in epidermoid carcinomas and melanin-producing cells in melanomas. Proliferation of tumour cells was seen along the renal capsule suggesting their affinity for connective tissue. capillaries filled with mouse erythrocytes were also seen. No or minimal lymphocytic infiltration was found. Drug oncolytic effects ranged from minor cellular degeneration to almost complete necrosis and were documented by the scoring of histologic lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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8/13. Unusual intranuclear inclusions in malignant fibrous histiocytoma: presence in primary tumor, metastases, and xenografts.

    We describe previously unreported intranuclear inclusions in 2 cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The inclusions were found in 2-10% of the tumor cells removed from the patients and in 2-10% of the cells examined in tumor tissue xenotransplanted in nude mice. By stereo electron microscopy the inclusions are closely packed undulating fibrils 18-23 nm in diameter. They are sometimes associated with fibrillary bodies. They closely resemble the inclusions reported in some animals inoculated with serum from patients with non-A non-B hepatitis; however, their nature at present is unknown.
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keywords = animal
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9/13. Clinical thermochemotherapy. A controlled trial in advanced cancer patients.

    in vitro and in vivo animal studies and some clinical trials have shown apparent benefit from thermochemotherapy; however, this treatment modality has not been adequately tested in humans. This investigation evaluated response to and toxicity of secondary thermochemotherapy, using each patient as his own control. patients with advanced cancer who had documented disease progression while receiving chemotherapy alone were subsequently treated with the same drug, by the same dose and route, combined with localized hyperthermia. Thirty-four patients whose diseases included metastatic colon carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma and hepatoma in viscera (29) or surface tissues (5) were treated with combination thermochemotherapy for 1 hour daily for 5 days/month. Effective heating from 41 to 45 degrees C minimum tumor temperature was possible in 17/19 (89%) tumors in which temperatures could be measured safely. The authors observed 5 (15%) tumor regressions for 1 to 5 months (median, 2 months), and 19 (56%) tumor stabilizations (growth arrest of previously progressive disease) for 1 to 9 months (median, 4 months). Subjective improvement in activity and/or pain control occurred in 6 (18%) patients and 20 (59%) had no progression of symptoms during treatment. Moreover, there was no detectable morbidity from localized hyperthermia, and no evidence of increased chemotherapy toxicity. While the mechanism(s) of response is poorly understood, the documented disease regressions and stabilizations of previously progressive disease in 24 (71%) patients during secondary combination thermochemotherapy indicates that the addition of hyperthermia may have useful anticancer activity. Expanded trials are warranted.
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keywords = animal
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10/13. Red cell fragmentation in human disease (a light and scanning electron microscope study).

    Although the mechanism of schizocyte formation has been amply documented in animal experiments and in in-vitro models, the fragmentation encounter between flowing red cells and fibrin strands has not previously been successfully demonstrated in human, microangiopathic disease. If blood flow is restored briefly in vitro immediately prior to tissue fixation, the instant of red cell fragmentation can be captured. Examination of tissue specimens fixed in this manner shows a pathophysiologic process that amplifies the findings previously described in other studies. In the patient under study, the microangiopathic process was widespread in all specimens of pulmonary and renal tissue that had been fixed after brief restoration of blood flow. Small arteries as well as the true microcirculation of both organs were involved. The microangiopathic process in the small arteries and arterioles presented as a partially occlusive thrombus of characteristic histology. The pulmonary capillaries contained linear fibrin microclots festooned with distorted and partially fragmented red cells. The microcirculation of the kidney showed the same findings as well as amorphous, sludged, occlusive red cell masses, particularly in the renal medulla.
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