Cases reported "Neoplasm Metastasis"

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1/22. Long-term survival of a patient with fallopian tube cancer presenting with a supraclavicular mass.

    BACKGROUND: Five-year survival of patients with stage IV cancer of the fallopian tube is poor. Furthermore, patients with gynecological cancers presenting with a supraclavicular mass generally have an unfavorable prognosis. CASE REPORT: We describe a 70-year-old patient who presented with a left supraclavicular mass. The mass was removed and histology showed metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma strongly suggestive of papillary serous carcinoma. Abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy showed a primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Postoperatively the patient received six cycles of carboplatin-based chemotherapy and is alive and well with no evidence of disease 5 years and 10 months after the primary diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Surgery and adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy seem justified even in older patients with fallopian tube cancer and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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2/22. Recurrent metastatic fallopian tube carcinoma in pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Fallopian tube cancer is the rarest of all gynecologic cancers. An extensive literature search on medline reveals no previous case reports of fallopian tube carcinoma in association with a term pregnancy. CASE: A woman with surgical stage IIB fallopian tube carcinoma was treated with limited staging laparotomy, as per the patient's fertility wishes, followed by adjuvant cis-platinum and paclitaxel (Taxol). One year following chemotherapy, she conceived. She was noted to have an asymptomatic intraabdominal recurrence at 16 weeks. The patient completed 37 weeks of pregnancy without further therapy according to her wishes. She subsequently underwent a cesarean section with optimal tumor reduction surgery. carboplatin and paclitaxel were reinstituted, achieving partial response. She is presently alive with stable disease status 6 months after completing her salvage chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: This is the first case report of recurrent fallopian tube cancer in pregnancy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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3/22. Bleeding from endometrial and vaginal malignant tumors treated with activated recombinant factor VII.

    The authors report two cases of successful employment of human recombinant activated factor VII in gynecological oncological patients (endometrial cancer and vaginal sarcoma) without pre-existing coagulopathy. They conclude that recombinant factor viia may be an important and effective drug in severe bleeding in gynecological oncology.
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ranking = 2
keywords = gynecologic
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4/22. Liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of metastatic chemorefractory vulvar adenocarcinoma.

    BACKGROUND: Primaryadenocarcinoma of the vulva is a rare entity, and for widely metastatic vulvar adenocarcinoma, no effective treatment has been established. CASE: A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with regionally advanced vulvar adenocarcinoma, with bulky involvement of bilateral groin lymph nodes, and associated extramammary Paget's disease. Initial therapy consisted of multiagent chemotherapy and vulvar and groin irradiation, followed by radical vulvectomy with groin and pelvic lymph node dissection. She subsequently developed widely metastatic disease including brain, pulmonary, hepatic, osseus, and subcutaneous lesions. Treatment with liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) resulted in dramatic regression of metastatic lesions and marked improvement in quality-of-life. She remains clinically well, greater than 1 year since initiating Doxil treatment for widely metastatic vulvar adenocarcinoma, and has surpassed 5 years of survival since her initial diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of Doxil used for the treatment of metastatic chemorefractory vulvar adenocarcinoma. We observed that Doxil was a well-tolerated and effective agent for this gynecologic malignancy, and warrants further investigation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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5/22. Multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis of a gynaecologic double tumor: a case report.

    PURPOSE. An uncommon clinical presentation of metastatic tumor will often lead to additional diagnostic examinations. The patient of the present study was known to have endometrial cancer which was thought to be limited to the endometrium. Three months postoperatively, she developed ascites due to spread of the tumor, which is rarely seen in low-stage endometrial cancer. METHOD. Multiparameter flow cytometry using both cell phenotype information and dna ploidy was performed. RESULTS. Retrospectively, the patient was diagnosed as having a dna-diploid epithelial tumor of the endometrium as well as a dna-aneuploid epithelial tumor in the left fallopian tube. It was shown that 3 months after primary surgery she developed ascites caused by metastatic tumor from the primary fallopian tube cancer. CONCLUSION. The complete diagnosis was made using multiparameter flow cytometry which, at present, is not routinely applied in gynecologic pathology.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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6/22. Clinical importance of molecular determinations in gynecologic patients with multiple tumors.

    BACKGROUND: The prognosis and treatment of patients with multiple tumors may depend on the correlation between tumors: multiple primary tumors, or recurrent tumors, and metastatic disease. The authors investigated whether the detection of molecular aberrations in multiple gynecologic tumors in individual patients provided clinically useful information on the correlation between the tumors. methods: Between 1999 and 2001, molecular analyses were performed on tissue from 15 gynecologic patients, all with multiple tumors. The molecular analyses included loss of heterozygosity determinations at eight dna loci and mutation analyses of p53 exons 5-8 using the single-strand conformation polymorphism method. Previously, it was not possible to use routine diagnostic histopathology to determine accurately the correlation between multiple lesions in patients with gynecologic malignancies, information that may have an impact on clinical decision-making and prognosis. RESULTS: Molecular results were obtained from all tumors from each of the 15 patients. The dna alterations detected provided evidence that two patients had second primary tumors, nine patients had a single tumor with metastases, and four patients had two independent primary tumors as well as metastatic disease. The results provided additional diagnostic information and contributed to clinical decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrated that, by comparing dna alterations in multiple tumors within an individual patient, evidence about correlations between the tumors can be obtained. These investigations can be performed on routinely processed tissues, and the results may be of clinical importance in helping to determine the management or prognosis of patients with gynecologic malignancies.
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ranking = 8
keywords = gynecologic
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7/22. lung cancer during pregnancy involving the products of conception and a review of the literature.

    Approximately 1 per 1,000-1,500 pregnancies is complicated by maternal malignancies. Metastatic involvement of the products of conception is a rare event. There have been 62 cases of placental and/or fetal metastatic involvement originating from maternal cancer reported since 1866. Only 14 cases of lung cancer associated with pregnancy have been documented. We report on an additional case involving the products of conception, and the management of lung cancer in pregnancy is discussed based on an extensive review of the literature. The case of a 29-year-old woman presenting during the 31(st) week of gestation with metastatic non small-cell lung cancer to the placenta, liver and bone is described. The mother was delivered by caesarean section of a healthy baby girl during her 32(nd) week of gestation. The mother's postpartum course was complicated by disseminated pulmonary and bony metastases and malignant pericardial and pleural effusions causing the patient's death within 1 month after lung cancer was diagnosed. Malignancies spreading to the products of conception are melanoma (32%), leukemia and lymphomas (15%), breast cancer (13%), lung cancer (11%), sarcoma (8%), gastric cancer (3%) and gynecologic cancers (3%), reflecting malignancies with a high incidence in women of reproductive age. All lung cancers were diagnosed with widely disseminated, inoperable neoplastic disease, including distant metastases in 46%. The mean age was 35.1 years (range, 30-45 years) and 60% of patients had a history of tobacco use. The mean survival was 7.5 months (range: 1-42 months). placenta involvement was present in 7 out of 15 cases. Fetal involvement was reported in only one case. Because there is no evidence of a direct adverse effect of pregnancy on the course of lung cancer, we recommend delivery at a time when enough fetal maturity can be assumed and the subsequent treatment of the mother.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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8/22. Long-lasting complete remission of a patient with cervical cancer FIGO IVB treated by concomitant chemobrachyradiotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin and consolidation chemotherapy--a case report.

    The treatment of women with already metastasized cervical cancer at initial diagnosis represents a challenge to gynecologic oncologists. We report on a 63-year-old patient with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri with an isolated metastasis to the left ovary. Following treatment with concomitant chemoradiotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin and three cycles of consolidation chemotherapy with the same drug combination a complete clinical remission could be documented. At present, 35 months after her disease was diagnosed, she is still without any evidence of disease. The very promising outcome of this patient might suggest that combined chemoradiation which is the standard treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is justified as well in the metastatic setting, provided the metastatic lesion is covered within the usual radiation field.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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9/22. The use of electron microscopy to refine diagnoses in the daily practice of cytopathology.

    Conceived as a screening tool, cytology is a field that since the 1980s has become more diagnostic in its scope. The advent of the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is responsible for cytology's new place in pathology. In the everyday practice of cytopathology, about 85-90% of the nongynecologic cases can be diagnosed with the use of routine stains (i.e., Papanicolaou and Diff Quik). The other 10-15% of the cases require the use of ancillary diagnostic techniques for a precise diagnosis. immunohistochemistry helps solve approximately 50% of these cases, and the other half of these challenging cases are best approached and diagnosed by using electron microscopy (EM). In their practice, the authors obtain cytologic samples for EM routinely in difficult cases. Unfortunately, a percentage of these cases collected for ultrastructural evaluation do not have enough cells after processing, and others only have a few diagnostic cells available. In the cases in which at least a handful of cells are available, EM is almost invariably helpful in one way or another, either making a definitive diagnosis or refining the diagnosis. A sampling of FNAB cases from the authors' everyday practice is prevented to illustrate the use of EM in the practice of cytopathology. The cases have been selected from among the most common diagnostic challenges to highlight the important role that ultrastructural evaluation plays in a busy cytology practice. In our practice ultrastructural evaluation is a piece of the puzzle, which, along with the clinical history, clinical impression, light microscopic/cytologic features, and other ancillary techniques (IHC, flow cytometry, and molecular pathology), help compile an accurate diagnosis. Many times EM is the most important component of the diagnostic algorithm.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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10/22. Unexpected metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast with intraabdominal spread and subsequent port-site metastasis after diagnostic laparoscopy for exclusion of ovarian cancer.

    INTRODUCTION: Although lobular carcinomas metastasize primarily to lymph nodes, bone, lung and liver, they can also spread to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum and gynecologic organs. CASE REPORT: We report a case of intraperitoneal carcinomatosis of a lobular breast carcinoma that metastasized primarily to the peritoneum, with a subsequent abdominal wall invasion at the trocar site following laparoscopic surgery for the exclusion of an ovarian carcinoma. DISCUSSION: Port-site metastases (PSM) have occurred after laparoscopic surgery for endometrial, fallopian tube, ovarian, and cervical cancers. This is the first report of PSM of a lobular breast carcinoma primarily metastasized to the abdominal cavity. Every surgeon should be aware of the metastatic pattern of breast cancer, especially in relation to its histological subtypes. This case report emphasizes that PSM can occur in various kinds of gynecologic tumors, including breast cancer.
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ranking = 2
keywords = gynecologic
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