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1/40. Surgical treatment for recurrent tumors of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus: a case report and review of the literature.

    The purpose of this communication is to present a case of resection performed for local recurrent tumors of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) and to review the relevant literature. The patient was a 54 year-old man who had received an intraabdominal esophagectomy with a total gastrectomy for primary malignant melanoma of the abdominal esophagus in another hospital, in November 1995. After the initial operation, he was treated as an outpatient. In August 1997, computed tomography and ultrasonography revealed recurrent tumors in the dorsal pancreatic lymph node and in the right adrenal gland. The recurrent tumor of the dorsal pancreas directly invaded the dorsal pancreas parenchyma and occluded the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein, and the other metastatic tumor in the right adrenal gland existed in the absence of circumference invasion. Metastases of the PMME were confirmed in the dorsal pancreas, the superior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, and right adrenal gland, and were removed by a total pancreatectomy on October 7, 1997. By immunohistochemical staining, we found that the focal areas expressed S-100 protein and HMB-45 antibody. Currently (February 1998), the patient is alive and disease-free. PMME is an extremely rare tumor with a poor prognosis for survival. Only 2 cases of removal of recurrent tumors, including the present case, have been reported. The treatment of choice is surgical resection, even in cases of recurrence, because radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy have not been proven to be beneficial; however, they may play a palliative role if surgery is not possible.
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2/40. Stomal recurrence invading the cervicothoracic esophagus and upper mediastinum: resectability and the creation of a safe anterior mediastinal tracheostoma.

    Surgical salvage for stomal recurrence is a for midable problem for head and neck surgeons. The two factors of considerable significance are resectability and establishment of a safe anterior mediastinal tracheostoma. A case of stomal recurrence invading the cervicothoracic esophagus and upper mediastinum is presented. Total esophagectomy and upper mediastinal dissection was performed. The esophagus was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled gastric flap. The omentum on the gastric pedicle was wrapped around the trachea to reduce the likelihood of erosion into the great vessels and to supplement the lateral blood supply to the trachea. No serious postoperative complications were observed. We believe that the total esophagectomy improved the resectability, and that the bulk of the gastric pedicle and the use of the omentum prevented significant postoperative complications associated with an anterior mediastinal tracheostoma.
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3/40. Anaplastic and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the small intestine: an unusual tumor.

    Primary malignant tumors of the small intestine are rare, and sarcomatoid carcinomas have rarely been reported at this site. Anaplastic and sarcomatoid carcinomas are well described in the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly in the esophagus and the larynx. The authors report a case of anaplastic and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ileum presenting as gastrointestinal bleeding. Their patient and the literature suggest that these tumors are much more aggressive than other small intestinal tumors. The importance of a systematic diagnostic approach in diagnosing these tumors is also discussed.
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4/40. Local treatment of early cancer in short Barrett's esophagus by means of argon plasma coagulation: initial experience.

    In recent years endoscopically controlled local therapeutic methods, such as photodynamic therapy, mucosectomy, or laser therapy, have been used with a curative aim for the destruction of early esophageal or gastric cancers. We report on our experience of treating histologically proven mucosal cancer in Barrett's esophagus with argon plasma coagulation (APC), in three patients. All the mucosal esophageal cancers, with a mean diameter of 4 mm, were successfully destroyed after one or two treatment sessions. Additionally, in two of the three patients the specialized columnar epithelium was replaced by normal squamous cell epithelium when APC treatment was combined with omeprazole. In the third patient with Barrett's esophagus, a partial squamous cell re-epithelialization was induced. No method-related mortality and morbidity were observed. During the mean follow-up of 24.3 /- 1.1 months (range 23-25 months) one tumor recurrence developed which was successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. In patients with small early Barrett's carcinoma APC might offer an effective, minimally invasive alternative to mucosectomy or photodynamic therapy, as the treatment procedure is less cumbersome and the equipment less expensive.
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5/40. Surgical approach to a giant fibrolipoma of the supraglottic larynx.

    This paper describes the surgical procedures for a fibrolipoma that first appeared as a giant tumour in the hypopharynx and extended to the cardiac antrum of the oesophagus. At the initial surgery, a pedunculated tumour originating from the left arytenoid of the larynx was found to occupy the cervical as well as thoracic oesophagus and was thus removed through a lateral pharyngectomy. A histological examination revealed fibrolipoma. However there was a recurrence of the tumour in the arytenoid and the patient suffered from dysponea. In addition, a submucosal tumour was also found in the left false vocal fold. At the second surgery, the masses in the arytenoid and false vocal fold were subtotally removed without damaging the mucosa. The mucosa of the arytenoid was sutured to the thyropharyngeal muscle on the same side and the arytenoid swelling disappeared almost completely. The post-operative course has been uneventful for more than two years.
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6/40. Co-occurrence of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: report of a case.

    A case of co-occurrence of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the esophagus is described. The present patient was a 61-year-old man who underwent a curative esophagectomy with a regional lymph node dissection for a MEC in the lower esophagus and a SCC near the esophagogastric junction. The two lesions were endoscopically and histologically divided by a normal esophageal mucosa. The MEC of the esophagus consisted of SCC cells and signet-ring cells, and a mucin product and carcinoembryonic antigen, which were found at high levels in the blood serum before surgery, were detected histochemically in the signet-ring cells. The follow-up survey of the patients with esophageal MEC previously reported in japan showed that most of the patients died of either local recurrence or widespread metastasis after treatment; the overall 5-year survival rate was 24.4% in the total 25 cases, and 27.7% in the 22 resected cases. However, 6 patients who died of therapeutic complications were included among these patients; furthermore, the 5-year survival rate after surgery was 29.2% in the patients treated over the last decade (1989-1998). We expect that the clinical outcome of patients treated for esophageal MEC will therefore improve in the future.
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7/40. serum level of c-reactive protein may be a marker for proliferation of esophageal carcinoma.

    We herein show the significance of the serum level of c-reactive protein as an indicator of proliferation in esophageal carcinoma. The patient was a 70-year-old male with advanced squamous cell carcinoma in the lower location of the esophagus, and in whom an esophagectomy and reconstruction with a gastric tube through the intrathoracic route was performed. When he was later hospitalized again due to recurrent tumor, the serum c-reactive protein level was 5.0 mg/dL and it later increased to 10.8 mg/dL along with the proliferation of the tumor. After performing chemotherapy, the concentration of the serum c-reactive protein decreased to the negative level with a simultaneous improvement in his cachexic condition and the eventual disappearance of the tumor.
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keywords = esophagus
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8/40. Toxicity of photodynamic therapy after combined external beam radiotherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy for carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the toxicity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract who received prior treatment with external beam irradiation and intraluminal brachytherapy (IB). STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND methods: hospital records of PDT patients were reviewed. Three patients who received prior treatment with external beam irradiation and IB were identified. Two patients had esophageal carcinoma treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam irradiation (55.8 and 50.4 Gy) followed by IB (12 Gy and 35 Gy at 1 cm). These patients then received PDT for treatment of recurrence (2 mg/kg Photofrin injection and 2 light applications: 630 nm, 150--200 J/cm, 200--400 mW/cm). One patient had non-small cell lung cancer treated with external beam irradiation (60 Gy) followed by IB (36.1 Gy at 1 cm) and then received PDT for recurrence (1 mg/kg Photofrin injection and one light application: 630 nm, 150 J/cm, 200 mW/cm). RESULTS: One patient with esophagus cancer had formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula, which required stent placement. The other esophageal cancer patient developed quadriplegia due to an epidural abscess arising from a fistula with the diseased portion of the esophagus. The lung cancer patient had massive hemoptysis after the procedure and died 2 days later. autopsy showed necrotizing arteritis of the right pulmonary artery. CONCLUSION: patients with upper aerodigestive tract carcinoma who have received treatment with both external beam irradiation and IB seem to be at higher risk for complications when treated with PDT.
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9/40. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with esophageal involvement.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with diffuse involvement of the esophagus in a child. DESIGN: Retrospective case report and literature review. SETTING: Tertiary Children's Hospital. CONCLUSION: endoscopy is recommended for detection of esophageal papillomas, especially in patients with significant laryngeal lesions or post-cricoid involvement.
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keywords = esophagus
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10/40. carcinosarcoma of the esophagus--pattern of recurrence.

    carcinosarcoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant neoplasm, predominantly affecting men in their seventh decade of life. While presenting symptoms and anatomic location of squamous cell and carcinosarcoma of the esophagus are similar, the latter often presents as a large intraluminal polypoid mass on barium esophagram. The more favorable prognosis associated with carcinosarcoma versus other esophageal neoplasms has been attributed to early onset of symptoms, resulting in prompt diagnosis, and a lower propensity for tumor invasion. We report the case of an elderly woman presenting with dysphagia who was initially diagnosed with esophageal leyomyosarcoma. Final tumor pathology showed esophageal carcinosarcoma.
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