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1/107. Ovarian endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor treated by surgery alone, with recurrence at 12 years.

    We describe the case of a stage Ia endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary, which was originally misdiagnosed as a malignant struma ovarii and not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. After 12 years, a contralateral dermoid cyst was excised along with a small omental nodule of partially necrotic and calcified endometrioid-like YST. No tumor was detected in several other biopsy specimens, and a peritoneal lavage was negative for tumor cells. Since there was no evidence of remaining tumor and the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was normal after the second operation, the patient was followed. Serial serum AFP levels remained normal for 4 months. At a second-look laparotomy after 4 months, a small tumor nodule was removed from the cul-de-sac. Postoperatively, the patient received three cycles of BEP chemotherapy. The long disease-free interval after the first operation in spite of the presence of occult spread to the omentum and to the pouch of Douglas in this case indicates that some endometrioid-like YSTs may have an indolent course. The present case underscores the importance of careful surgical staging and of long-term follow-up in cases of primitive germ cell tumors of the ovary.
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keywords = germ
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2/107. Molecular assessment of clonality leads to the identification of a new germ line TP53 mutation associated with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes and soft tissue sarcoma.

    Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CSP) is a rare breast neoplasm composed of stromal and epithelial elements. It usually runs a benign course but it may metastasize. In a 31-year-old patient with recurring CSP, a mesenchymal tumor in the leg developed. The question arose whether the latter tumor could be a metastasis from the CSP, which would have major treatment consequences. The problem was addressed using molecular methods, i.e., comparison of the pattern of polymorphic repeat markers on chromosome 17p as well as single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing of exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene in both tumor and normal tissue. An identical pattern of loss of heterozygosity in both breast tumors was demonstrated, but a different pattern was shown in the tumor in the leg. This led to the conclusion that the latter tumor had to be a new primary tumor. A mutation in codon 162 of the TP53 gene was found in the tumor tissue as well as in the normal tissue of this patient. This germ line mutation leads to the replacement of isoleucine by asparagine and most likely has functional consequences. In all four examined tumors of this patient, the normal TP53 allele was lost. This is strong evidence that this germ line TP53 mutation causes the genesis of these two rare primary mesenchymal tumors in this young patient. The current study exemplifies the power of molecular diagnostic methods in investigating the specific clinical problem of clonal relation between two separate tumors. The germ line mutation found in codon 162 of the TP53 gene and the association with cystosarcoma phyllodes have not been described previously.
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keywords = germ
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3/107. The bifrontal olfactory nerve-sparing approach to lesions of the suprasellar region in children.

    Suprasellar masses in children include lesions such as craniopharyngiomas and germ cell neoplasms. The difficult location of these lesions and their proximity to important neural and vascular structures pose challenges to resection. We operated on 14 patients using a bifrontal craniotomy with removal of both orbital rims to provide access to suprasellar masses, even those with significant extension into the third ventricle. A complete resection was possible in 8/14 patients and 8/10 craniopharyngiomas. In 13 patients, the optic nerves were identified and preserved, and vision was stable or improved postoperatively. Postoperatively, 1 patient with hydrocephalus developed a CSF leak which was successfully treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. No patient had a cosmetic defect related to orbital rim removal. The bifrontal approach used here enhanced the exposure of the suprasellar region and minimized manipulation of the optic apparatus and the carotid arteries. It may be used alone, or in conjunction with other approaches, to resect lesions in the suprasellar region.
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keywords = germ
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4/107. De novo RET proto-oncogene mutation in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b.

    We report a case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN 2B) with de novo RET proto-oncogene mutation. The patient, a 23-year-old Taiwanese woman, was admitted for treatment of recurrent medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) 7 years after a total thyroidectomy. Mucosal neuromas and marfanoid appearance were also noted. Because MEN 2B was suspected, the patient and her family members underwent genetic analysis. A heterozygous germline mutation at codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) of the proto-oncogene RET was detected in the patient. This mutation was considered de novo, as it was not detected in either of her parents or her siblings. The patient underwent surgery for removal of the recurrent tumor. Although no pheochromocytoma was noted, regular follow-up is necessary because of persistent hypercalcitoninemia.
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5/107. Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: a report of eight cases and review of the literature.

    This study was conducted to evaluate the signs and symptoms on admission, diagnosis, localization, therapy, and survival of patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors (PICGCT). Eight patients with surgically confirmed PICGCTs were treated and followed up at Hacettepe University's Department of Pediatric Oncology between 1974 and 1995. While one patient was admitted with a second recurrence of her disease, the others were admitted or referred primarily to our institution. In this period, 357 germ cell tumor and 684 primary intracranial malignant tumors were diagnosed and treated at our institution. Thus, PICGCTs comprised 1.1 percent of the primary intracranial malignant tumors and 2.2 percent of the germ cell tumors. There were four females and four males and the median age was eight years (13 months to 12 years). On admission, the most common symptoms were diabetes insipidus (3/8) and vomiting (3/8). One patient also and Down's syndrome. Locations of the tumors were suprasellar in three, in the third ventricle in two, and in the cerebral parenchyma, and pineal and hypothalamic regions in the remainder. There were germinomas, three malignant teratomas, and two mixed germ cell tumors. Only two patients could be treated with appropriate and adequate chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three patients died: one in the postsurgical period, one after the third surgical approach and one 11 months after the diagnosis of progressive disease; three were lost to follow-up. The remaining two patients (with second recurrence and disseminated disease) are alive and without disease. Our experience with these patients demonstrated that appropriate and adequate chemotherapy is as effective a treatment as radiotherapy, even with recurrence of the disease.
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ranking = 9
keywords = germ
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6/107. clonal evolution in a primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma revealed by single cell analysis in sequential biopsies.

    B cell neoplasias descending from germinal center cells harbor the hallmark of intraclonal diversity resulting from ongoing mutation in the variable parts of their immunoglobulin-encoding genes. To characterize a primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma in more detail, we analyzed the respective VH and VL genes in single cells mobilized from four sequential biopsies, three taken from the skin and one obtained after internal dissemination from a retrobulbar infiltrate. The lymphoma cells were found to contain V5-51/D6-12/JH5b (heavy chain) and A27/Jkappa2 (light chain) gene rearrangements detected on both the genomic and the transcriptional level. To provide an accurate mutation analysis, the specific VH gene counterpart (V5-51UK) was cloned from the patient's germline. Analyzing 226 single cells, we found: (i) complete nucleotide identity when VH and VL genes of lymphoma cells from one particular biopsy were compared among each other; (ii) intraclonal diversity due to ongoing mutation comparing the sequences obtained from sequential biopsies; (iii) both VH and VL genes to be highly mutated. Deducing from the sequence data, we propose a scenario of the clonal evolution of the B cell tumor in this patient. From the molecular-biological point of view, this primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma shows the features of a germinal center cell lymphoma. To draw this conclusion from single cell PCR data, however, a sample of sequential biopsies had to be analyzed.
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ranking = 3
keywords = germ
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7/107. recurrence of sellar and suprasellar tumors in children treated with hGH--relation to immunohistochemical study on GH receptor.

    PURPOSE: GH replacement therapy is required in the majority of children with GH deficiency after treatment of sellar and suprasellar tumors. Owing to the high cell proliferative ability of human GH (hGH), its influence on tumor recurrence has been debated. We retrospectively studied the immunohistochemical expression of the GH receptor in various tumor tissues, in order to investigate the relation between tumor recurrence and hGH replacement. methods: GH replacement therapy was performed in 25 patients (8 boys and 17 girls) after the treatment. Tumor recurrence was noted in 4 patients (craniopharyngioma: 2 patients, pilocytic astrocytoma and germinoma: 1 each). Immunohistochemical study of GH receptor in tumor tissue was carried out in those recurrent and recurrence-free cases, by using MAb 263 as a primary antibody. RESULTS: Two patients with recurrent craniopharyngioma were positive for MAb 263, but 1 recurrence-free patient was negative. patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (recurrent and recurrence-free: 1 each) were all positive. Five patients with germinoma (1 with recurrence and 4 without recurrence) were all negative. CONCLUSION: In the patients with craniopharyngioma treated with GH, a positive immunohistochemical expression of GH receptor in tumor tissue may indicate a high probability of recurrence. In our cases, GH receptor was positive in astrocytomas and negative in germinomas, with or without recurrence. It is therefore speculated that each brain tumor may have its specificity in GH receptor expression.
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keywords = germ
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8/107. Ameloblastic carcinoma ex ameloblastoma of the mandible with malignancy-associated hypercalcemia.

    ameloblastoma is a rare, locally destructive, benign neoplasm of the jawbones, which arises from epithelium derived from the epithelial components of the developing tooth. Ameloblastic carcinoma is the term used to designate any ameloblastoma in which there is histologic evidence of malignancy in the primary tumor, regardless of whether it has metastasized. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo, with few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastoma being apparent. hypercalcemia is the most common metabolic complication of malignancy. Although malignancy-associated hypercalcemia is often reported in association with other malignancies, it is exceedingly unusual in association with ameloblastoma, malignant ameloblastoma, or ameloblastic carcinoma. We describe a patient with multiple recurrences of ameloblastoma, with subsequent malignant transformation presenting with malignancy-associated hypercalcemia.
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ranking = 0.0077362138621307
keywords = tooth
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9/107. Low-grade ovarian cancer in an adolescent patient.

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors in the pediatric population are most likely to be of germ cell origin. However, serous tumors have also been reported in adolescent patients. CASE: A 14-year-old girl was diagnosed with stage IIIc low-grade ovarian cancer. Her serum CA-125 was elevated preoperatively and was a marker for recurrence of disease. Five months after completing standard chemotherapy, she developed recurrent disease, which progressed despite hormonal therapy. She then developed toxicity on liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) and is now receiving hospice care. CONCLUSION: Low-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary can present as advanced disease and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an ovarian mass in an adolescent patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = germ
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10/107. Ovarian adenocarcinoma in premenarchal girls.

    ovarian neoplasms are unusual in the paediatric age group; the majority of them are of germ cell origin. Malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary occur infrequently in adolescent girls. Ovarian carcinoma in particular is extremely rare before puberty. The authors describe 3 cases of adenocarcinoma of the ovary in premenarchal girls and highlight the unique characteristics of this tumour in this age group.
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keywords = germ
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