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11/20. Hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion: early pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor?

    Hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion (HFLL) and early pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) are characterized histologically by an admixture of fat, moderately cellular fascicles of hemosiderin-laden spindle cells growing in a perivascular, periadipocytic and septal pattern, as well as the presence of macrophages and chronic inflammatory cells. In contrast to a suggested reactive nature of HFLL, PHAT is regarded as a non-metastasizing tumor of uncertain lineage in the recent world health organization classification of soft tissue tumors. Reported herein is the case of a 47-year-old woman with an unencapsulated and irregularly circumscribed recurring lesion in the ankle/foot region that developed following ankle distortion and that fulfills histological criteria for both HFLL and early PHAT. In summary, the present case suggests a reactive over-neoplastic nature of HFLL and confirms profound histological similarities with early PHAT. Until more data become available on the biological potential of HFLL/early PHAT, radical surgical excision and follow up of the patient remains the best treatment option.
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12/20. Autologous rescue with blood-derived stem cells in a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Autologous blood-derived stem cells were used for stem-cell rescue in a 5-year-old boy with chemotherapy-resistant B-Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) involving bone marrow. The high dose chemoradiotherapy was carried out 5 months after initial diagnosis during partial remission. The preparative regimen consisted of 12 Gy fractionated, total-body irradiation (FTBI) before 60 mg/kg etoposide. There were 22.96 X 10(4)/kg body weight myeloid precursor cells, granulocyte-macrophage committed stem cells (CFU-GM) collected by intermittent blood flow separation with a Haemonetics 30R in two cytaphereses and stored in liquid nitrogen. Also 11, 82 X 10(4) CFU-GM/kg body weight were recovered and transfused after thawing. Rapid hematopoietic reconstitution ensued: Erythroid precursors were detected on day 9, 1 X 10(9)/L leucocytes were counted on day 11, and 0.5 X 10(9)/L granulocytes on day 13, respectively. The patient required 3 single-donor platelet transfusions, the last one on day 10. On day 17, 100 X 10(9)/L platelets were reached. A bone marrow aspirate on the same day showed good trilineage regeneration. The patient remained in complete remission 7 months after autografting with a normal stem cell content of the bone marrow and in the peripheral blood. On day 226, after stem cell infusion, a bone marrow relapse occurred.
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13/20. Cutaneous malakoplakia simulating relapsing malignant lymphoma.

    This report describes the case of a 42-year-old man with malignant lymphoma, diffuse large non-cleaved cell type, who developed cutaneous malakoplakia in the left groin. The patient had widespread lymph node involvement, including a left inguinal mass which was clinically thought to represent recurrent lymphoma. The inguinal mass failed to regress after chemotherapy and irradiation, although lymphoma in other sites responded to chemotherapy. A skin biopsy of the area showed an ulcer and an abscess involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Microscopically, a diffuse infiltrate of foamy histiocytes was seen with numerous intracellular and extracellular, round and laminated bodies. Some of these bodies had a "targetoid" appearance, stained strongly with von-Kossa's calcium stain and showed the typical appearance of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies by electron microscopy. Cultured monocytes from the peripheral blood of the patient showed ultrastructural features similar to their tissue counterparts, suggesting a systemic involvement of the monocyte macrophage lineage. This case represents an unusual presentation of malakoplakia of the skin associated with relapsing malignant lymphoma in a patient on immunosuppressive drugs.
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14/20. Clonal trisomy 8 is associated with myeloid phenotype rather than the neoplastic transformation in acute leukemia.

    Our studies of an acute leukemia with a clonal t(1;11) marker have demonstrated a conversion from pre-B cell to myelomonocytic phenotype associated with the acquisition of trisomy 8. This finding suggests that trisomy 8, a frequent clonal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemias, may be associated with the myeloid phenotype rather than the neoplastic transformation. A permanent myelomonocytic cell line, designated UF-SK1, has been established from leukemic cells with a 47,XX, 8,t(1;11) (p31;q25) karyotype and shown to have myelomonocytic characteristics, including phorbol ester-induced differentiation to macrophages. This new cell line will be a valuable tool in the study of leukemogenesis and lineage commitment.
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15/20. Aneurysmal benign fibrous histiocytoma: clinicopathological analysis of 40 cases of a tumour frequently misdiagnosed as a vascular neoplasm.

    Forty cases of the distinctive but poorly recognized aneurysmal variant of cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma are described. These tumours presented most commonly in middle-age adults, with a slight predilection for females. Anatomical distribution was wide with most cases occurring in the lower limb/limb girdle (50%), upper limb/limb girdle (20%) and trunk (17%). Lesional size ranged from 0.5 cm to 4 cm. Haemorrhage accounted for the rapid clinical growth of some lesions and the frequent clinical confusion with a cyst, a melanocytic lesion or a haemangioma. Five (19%) of the twenty-six cases with follow-up (mean duration 2.5 years) recurred locally, twice in two cases. One of these cases had involvement of a regional lymph node in the second recurrence, most likely as a result of direct local extension. Distinctive histological features were prominent blood-filled spaces, varying from artefact-like clefts to cystic areas mimicking cavernous vascular channels but devoid of an endothelial lining, prominent haemosiderin deposition, numerous siderophages and giant cells, and a moderate mitotic rate. Despite the presence of prominent secondary changes due to haemorrhage, all cases showed cellular polymorphism, hyalinized collagen bundles surrounded by tumour cells in the periphery of the lesion and 88% showed some degree of epidermal hyperplasia, as seen in common fibrous histiocytoma. immunohistochemistry (ABC method) revealed only vimentin and, rarely, focal smooth muscle actin positivity. CD68 was positive in some reactive macrophages only. Stains for CD31, CD34, desmin and factor xiiia were negative in all cases tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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16/20. Use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in two children treated with cord blood transplantation.

    Cord blood contains stem cells in amounts similar to or slightly less than those present in a bone marrow collection to be used for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Too few cord blood transplants (CBT) have yet been performed to define the ability to achieve engraftment and the rate of engraftment. Two cord blood transplants have been performed using granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to hasten engraftment. Two children, aged 5 and 6 years received a CBT using HLA-identical stem cells collected at the birth of a sibling. One child had X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), and the other, acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second complete remission. One had an ABO and one an Rh blood group mismatch. Conditioning therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and antithymocyte globulin or busulphan and cyclophosphamide. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was methotrexate and cyclosporine or cyclosporine. Both children were given GM-CSF at 5 micrograms/kg/day from day 1 until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) reached 1.0 x 10(9)/L for 3 consecutive days. If this level was not reached by day 14, the dose of GM-CSF was doubled. Both children engrafted rapidly, with ANCs reaching 0.5 x 10(9)/L in 12 and 16 days. Engraftment was confirmed by blood group in both and sex chromosome typing in one. Both children developed mild GVHD localized to skin, which resolved with steroid therapy. The child with XLP was cured and has survived for 34 months; the second child has survived 27 months with normal marrow function but has had a relapse of leukemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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17/20. Paranasal giant cell fibroblastoma: case report and immunohistochemical findings.

    Few published reports describe patients with giant cell fibroblastoma, a rare, benign soft-tissue tumor that recurs locally and predominantly arises in children. A 4-year-old boy underwent surgery for removal of a giant cell fibroblastoma in the paranasal region, an unusual site. Six months after excision the tumor recurred locally. Immunohistochemical examination of the primary tumor and recurrence revealed vimentin positive staining in the cytoplasm of all the cells. The multinucleated giant cells and the flat cells bordering the vessel-like spaces were negative for factor viii-related antigen, S-100 protein, actin and desmin. Some histiocytes stained positively for alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, antimacrophage and lysozyme antibodies. These immunoreactions indicate that giant cell fibroblastomas have a fibrohistiocytic origin.
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18/20. Gliomatosis peritonei combined with mature ovarian teratoma: immunohistochemical observations.

    Gliomatosis peritonei (GP) is the metastatic implantation of glial cells within the peritoneal cavity of patients with ovarian teratomas. The case of a young woman is presented, who initially developed a mature teratoma in the left ovary that was surgically removed. Nine years later a mature teratoma in the right ovary was excised, upon which GP was found in the greater omentum. To identify the cellular composition of the ovarian teratoma and of the omental implants, immunostainings were performed using antibodies against glial and neuronal antigens as well as against determinants of hematopoietic cells. In the teratoma the neuroectodermal part was strongly HNK-1-positive and contained GFAP- and vimentin-positive astrocytes and some NSE-positive neuron-like cells. In addition, neuroectodermal tissue was infiltrated by numerous CD68-positive macrophages/histiocytes and CD20-positive B lymphocytes. The omental nodules consisted of astrocytes, which expressed GFAP, vimentin and desmin. The implants also contained macrophages/histiocytes, which exhibited morphologic features reminiscent of microglial cells. In GP, macrophages might release glia-promoting trophic factors, which could allow the neural component of ovarian teratoma to implant in the peritoneal cavity and survive there for many years. Macrophage-derived factors might induce astroglial differentiation, which could explain why the peritoneal implants are mostly mature even when they originate from immature teratomas.
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19/20. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: biological questions based on pattern of recurrence in an allograft and tumor immunophenotype.

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is best considered a vascular neoplasm of intermediate malignancy. Although usually progressive, the clinical course is highly unpredictable. The present communication describes a case of extensive recurrent hepatic EHE, limited to the liver allograft and initially manifest as an insidious seeding of individual tumor cells in areas of perivenular inflammation associated with rejection. A detailed immunophenotypic characterization of this and a small series of EHE was carried out in an effort to highlight subtle disease recurrence and to gain possible insights into tumor biology associated with this intriguing disease. In a series of five cases of hepatic EHE, CD34 (QB-END/10) was found to be more sensitive than factor viii (F-VIII) for recognition of the disease, similar to previous reports. The former diffusely and distinctly stained both epithelioid and dendritic tumor cells, whereas staining for the latter was focal, indistinct, and showed a high background. Although the tumor cells were negative for some markers of dendritic or macrophage maturation, such as CD1a, S100 protein, Mac 387, CD68, and LN3, there was marked infiltration of hepatic EHE by factor xiiia (F-XIIIa), Mac 387 , CD68 , and LN3 macrophages and dendrocytes, most of which were interpreted as reactive. The "reactive" macrophage and dendrocyte populations were present throughout the fibrotic stroma and intermingled with the epithelioid clusters of EHE. Interestingly, a small subset of tumor cells coexpressed CD34 or F-VIII and F-XIIIa, the last of which is normally restricted to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cytokine activated microvascular endothelium in vitro. The known association of F-XIIIa dendrocytes with granulation tissue, repair and fibrogenesis, and the modulation of F-XIIIa and F-VIII expression by inflammatory cytokines led us to speculate that EHE lesions may derive from primitive "reticuloenothelial" cells that can differentiate along endothelial and dendritic pathways. The EHE lesions may represent a neoplastic analogue of wound healing. Thus, the variability in F-VIII staining, the strong expression of CD34, the infiltration of EHE lesions with F-XIIIa dendrocytes, and the coexpression of CD34 and F-XIIIa on a subset of tumor cells may have an important biological basis.
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20/20. Primary malignant rhabdoid tumours of the central nervous system: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    Three cases of primary rhabdoid tumour of the CNS (RT-CNS) are presented. In case 1 a hemispheric tumour developed in a 10.5 months old girl, who survived for 6 months after incomplete resection, radio- and polychemotherapy. Case 2 was a 4 years and 8 months old boy with a large IIIrd ventricle tumour, who died of leptomeningeal tumour dissemination 7 months after diagnosis despite radiotherapy. In case 3 a pineal mass occurring in a 14 month old female was radioresistant and totally exstirpated. The child died due to tumour recurrence two months later. autopsy examination revealed widespread leptomeningeal dissemination. All three cases fulfilled light and electron microscopic criteria of RT-CNS including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei with large nucleoli and conspicuous anti-vimentin positive filaments. Extensive immunohistochemical studies showed expression of epithelial (EMA, KL1), macrophage (alpha-1 antichymotrypsin), neuro-ectodermal (GFAP, NSE, beta-tubulin III) and myogenic markers (desmin, actin). Different stress proteins (alpha-B crystallin, HSP70) were also expressed. Tumour cells showed a proliferation (MIB1) index of 28.4% (case 1) and 33.4% (case 2). From our study it can be concluded that RT-CNS reveals significant immuno-morphological heterogeneity thus supporting the view that it is not a specific pathological entity but merely a phenotypic appearance of different neoplasms, some of which are linked to primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours.
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