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1/655. Intra-articular metastatic melanoma of the right knee.

    melanoma can metastasize to almost every organ and tissue. Although bone metastases have been reported frequently, the authors are aware of only a single report of intra-articular synovial metastasis. A case of metastatic melanoma, mimicking degenerative medial meniscal tear of the right knee, is presented. Further examination revealed asymptomatic metastases in the liver, subcutaneous tissue, and left trochanter minor. Arthroscopic examination revealed widespread synovial metastasis and a palliative arthroscopic synovectomy was performed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = metastasis
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2/655. Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study.

    Twenty cases of primary Fallopian tube endometrioid carcinoma (PFTEC) are presented in the paper. This accounts for 42.5% of all histologic forms of primary Fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) found in our Department. The youngest patient was 38, and the oldest 68 years (mean: 56 years). Seven patients were nulliparas. Only two cases were bilateral. According to FIGO staging, 13 cases were evaluated as stage I, 4 as II, and 3 as stage III. Due to the histologic grading, 8 tumors were classified as well, 7 as moderately, and 5 as poorly differentiated. In the time of preparation of the manuscript, 12 women were still alive, 2 of them with recurrent disease. The follow-up of patients without recurrence ranged from 4 to 120 months (median: 63). Eight patients had died (survival time: from 4 to 65 months; median: 26). Metastases were found in 8 patients, especially to ovaries. In 14/20 cases of PFTEC various forms of tubal wall invasion were observed. Blood or lymphatic vessels involvement was found in 9 patients. Six of them had died and one is alive with the symptoms of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutant form of p53 protein and oncogene product, c-erbB-2, was studied in 17 cases. Nine patients exhibited simultaneous p53 protein accumulation and c-erbB-2 expression. 2/9 of these patients are alive with recurrent tumors and 4/9 died. Endometrioid carcinoma of the Fallopian tube can be characterized by a tendency to superficial invasion of tubal wall and in a half of the cases by invasion of vessels. The majority of these tumors were diagnosed at an early stage tumors.
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ranking = 0.010388541080381
keywords = lymphatic
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3/655. Follicular dendritic cell tumor of the parapharyngeal region.

    BACKGROUND: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) tumors are rare. A majority of the reported cases were confined to the lymph nodes. We report a case of FDC tumor occurring in the parapharyngeal region in a 45-year-old woman. methods: Characteristic histopathologic features of the excised primary and recurrent parapharyngeal tumors in conjunction with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy helped us to arrive at a diagnosis of FDC tumor. RESULTS: Histopathology of primary excision revealed a lobulated tumor with a suggestion of ill-defined whorls. The most striking feature was regular occurrence of aggregates of lymphocytes within the tumor, especially around the blood vessels. The anatomic location together with the histology indicated the possibilities of either a meningioma, a salivary gland tumor, or a nerve sheath tumor. Immunostains for cytokeratin (CK), S-100 protein, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) were negative. However, the tumor cells showed strong immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and vimentin. A diagnosis of parapharyngeal meningioma appeared to be the closest possibility. One year later, the patient developed a recurrence at the same site. A reexcision showed an identical tumor with an additional feature of lymphatic embolization and angioinvasion. A review of the entire case with further immunoreactivity for CD21 and CD35 confirmed the diagnosis of FDC. CONCLUSIONS: Follicular dendritic cell tumor has distinctive morphologic features and immunohistochemical profile. It is also characterized by considerable potential for recurrences.
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ranking = 0.010388541080381
keywords = lymphatic
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4/655. Well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, gastric foveolar type, of the extrahepatic bile ducts: A previously unrecognized and distinctive morphologic variant of bile duct carcinoma.

    Two examples of a rare but distinctive morphologic variant of extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts are reported. One tumor arose in the common bile duct of a 51-year-old man; the other arose in the common hepatic duct of a 27-year-old man. Both tumors were composed predominantly (>95%) of gastric foveolar-type epithelium. Because of their bland nuclear features, low mitotic index, and focal polypoid and lobular architecture, they were initially confused with adenomas. Foci of less-differentiated adenocarcinoma and perineural invasion present in the deep portions of the tumors facilitated recognition. The neoplastic cells and extracellular mucin were periodic acid-Schiff- and alcian blue-positive. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells expressed cytokeratins 8 and 20 as well as cathepsin d, as reported in normal foveolar cells. Likewise, p53 overexpression was documented immunohistochemically in both adenocarcinomas, which also stained with the Ki-67 antibody. Despite the well-differentiated nature of the neoplasms and their deceptively benign microscopic appearance, one patient developed recurrence and liver metastasis 5 years after surgery. The other patient is disease-free 2 years following a segmental resection of the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and gallbladder. The cell phenotype of these tumors can be explained by the ability of the bile duct epithelium to differentiate along gastric cell lines.
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keywords = metastasis
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5/655. Myxoid variant of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma arising in the breast.

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a malignant tumor of the follicular dendritic cell which can arise in extranodal sites. We present here a case arising as a mass in the breast of a 41-year-old woman. The tumor was composed of mildly pleomorphic spindly cells with pale ovoid nuclei and cell processes intimately admixed with mature lymphocytes. In much of the lesion the cells were dispersed in cords in a myxoid stroma, and elsewhere there were solid sheets. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for CD21, CD35, EMA, and S100 protein, but not for other lymphoid markers or cytokeratin. Electron microscopy showed interdigitating cytoplasmic processes with junctions but no external lamina. The differential diagnosis includes carcinoma, lymphomas, and a variety of myxoid sarcomas. The tumor recurred within a few months and displayed increased nuclear pleomorphism and lymphatic invasion but the patient appears free of disease 3 years after the further excision. This case extends the spectrum of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma in soft tissue sites.
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ranking = 0.010388541080381
keywords = lymphatic
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6/655. Management of adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by asynchronous resection of bilateral adrenal glands.

    We report on a 65-year-old man who received asynchronous bilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Fifteen months after curative resection of right hepatic lobe for hepatocellular carcinoma, a metastatic lesion of the left adrenal gland was detected and left adrenalectomy was performed. Ten months after the second operation, a metastatic lesion in the right adrenal gland, associated with tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava, was revealed. Transcatheter arterial embolization of the arteries feeding the metastatic tumor was performed, but its effects were incomplete. As there was the tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and no other intrahepatic recurrence or extrahepatic metastasis was found, resection of the right adrenal gland with tumor thrombus, without the employment of veno-venous bypass, was performed, followed by postoperative hormonal supplementation. Changes in the patient's alpha-fetoprotein level were clinically useful for the detection of the metastatic lesions and the evaluation of therapeutic effects. Metastasis to adrenal gland from hepatocellular carcinoma should be actively managed, and the appropriate surgical treatment selected, if intrahepatic recurrence and/or other extrahepatic metastasis are controlled. To achieve higher curability and better outcome in patients with bilateral adrenal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma, bilateral total adrenalectomy is indicated, accompanied by effective postoperative hormonal supplementation.
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ranking = 4
keywords = metastasis
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7/655. Molecular assessment of clonality leads to the identification of a new germ line TP53 mutation associated with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes and soft tissue sarcoma.

    Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CSP) is a rare breast neoplasm composed of stromal and epithelial elements. It usually runs a benign course but it may metastasize. In a 31-year-old patient with recurring CSP, a mesenchymal tumor in the leg developed. The question arose whether the latter tumor could be a metastasis from the CSP, which would have major treatment consequences. The problem was addressed using molecular methods, i.e., comparison of the pattern of polymorphic repeat markers on chromosome 17p as well as single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing of exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene in both tumor and normal tissue. An identical pattern of loss of heterozygosity in both breast tumors was demonstrated, but a different pattern was shown in the tumor in the leg. This led to the conclusion that the latter tumor had to be a new primary tumor. A mutation in codon 162 of the TP53 gene was found in the tumor tissue as well as in the normal tissue of this patient. This germ line mutation leads to the replacement of isoleucine by asparagine and most likely has functional consequences. In all four examined tumors of this patient, the normal TP53 allele was lost. This is strong evidence that this germ line TP53 mutation causes the genesis of these two rare primary mesenchymal tumors in this young patient. The current study exemplifies the power of molecular diagnostic methods in investigating the specific clinical problem of clonal relation between two separate tumors. The germ line mutation found in codon 162 of the TP53 gene and the association with cystosarcoma phyllodes have not been described previously.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = metastasis
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8/655. Papillary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the groin arising from endometriosis.

    A 67-year-old woman presented with rapidly enlarging right anterior thigh mass. Clinical impression was of a primary sarcoma, but the histologic analysis of an incisional biopsy specimen showed adenocarcinoma with clear cell differentiation. Initially thought to be a metastasis, the malignant tumor appears to have arisen from extraabdominal endometriosis of the right groin. This case shows clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings that may help the orthopaedic surgeon recognize an unusual complication of extrapelvic endometriosis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = metastasis
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9/655. Repeat hepatic resection for recurrent metastatic melanoma.

    We present an unusual case of a recurrent metastatic hepatic melanoma that had undergone a repeat hepatic resection. A 62 year-old female patient was diagnosed with a plantar melanoma and was managed with resection and regional lymphadenectomy. Eight months later, a solitary liver metastasis was diagnosed and a right hepatectomy performed. Sixteen months later, a recurrent solitary metastasis was diagnosed in the caudate lobe and resection was performed. She has since been asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence of the disease at a 2-year follow up. We recommend surgical removal of hepatic metastatic melanoma in selected cases where the disease is confined to the liver and surgery can be performed without unacceptable risk.
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ranking = 1
keywords = metastasis
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10/655. A leptomeningeal metastasis revealed by sciatica.

    Meningeal metastatic disease usually occurs as a complication of a brain tumor and is exceptionally isolated in patients with solid tumors. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman admitted for mechanical S1 sciatica refractory to drug therapy. She had been treated for breast cancer three years earlier. Physical findings were pain upon hyperextension of the lumbar spine and absence of the ankle jerks. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid sampled during an intrathecal glucocorticoid injection showed 1 g/L of protein and 11 normal cells per mm3. Grade 3 L5-S1 spondylolisthesis was seen on plain radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. At that point, the patient developed sphincter dysfunction and motor loss in the left lower limb in the distribution of several nerve roots. Findings were normal from a myelogram and a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain. A repeat cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed 1.1 g/L of protein and 5 cells/mm3. Because of the discrepancy between the clinical and imaging study findings, the patient was transferred to a neurology department. A third cerebrospinal fluid study showed numerous adenocarcinoma cells, and a repeat magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the dural sac opposite L2. A program of monthly intrathecal methotrexate injections was started. A fatal meningeal relapse occurred eight months later. CONCLUSION: This case shows that a leptomeningeal metastasis can cause isolated nerve root pain, and demonstrates the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with atypical symptoms, particularly when there is a history of malignant disease.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = metastasis
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