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1/90. Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids: a review of patients treated by surgical excision.

    A study of 107 cases of basal cell carcinoma involving the eyelids in 106 patients all treated by surgical excision was undertaken. The lesions were found predominantly in Caucasians, showed no sex predilection (except for the fact that all five cases under age 40 occurred in females), and were most prevalent in the 7th decade of life. The most common presenting symptom was a mass or growth, while the duration of symptoms of any kind referable to the tumor was 20 months. The lower lid was the most common site of involvement, followed in order of frequency by the upper lid, medial canthus, and lateral canthus. Excised lesions that show marginal involvement histopathologically will not necessarily clinically recur, although this study did show that incomplete excision will more likely show a clinical recurrence in previously treated rather than primary lesions. If basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid are fully surgically excised as a first procedure, the patient will have about a 99% cure rate. Lesions requiring orbital exenteration are rare.
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2/90. Colonoscopic perforation: its emergency treatment.

    One of the accepted complications of colonoscopy is perforation. This is known to occur in greater frequency in patients having undergone previous pelvic or colonic surgery, as well as patients suffering from diverticulosis. A case is presented of colonic perforation during diagnostic examination in an area of adhesions secondary to pelvic surgery. Immediately after the perforation, the patient entered into vascular collapse and respiratory distress, with a distended abdomen. The introduction of a large bore intravenous catheter into the abdominal cavity with the release of the pneumoperitoneum resulted in an instantaneous return of vital signs and the patient subsequently underwent surgery and recovered. It is felt that this method of emergency treatment can be life-saving in a patient perforating during colonoscopy.
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3/90. Surgical management for lymph node recurrence of resected fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC), which is quite uncommon in japan, is known to be frequently associated with lymph node metastasis in Western countries. Herein, we describe a case of a 25 year-old Japanese woman with recurrent FLHCC in the lymph nodes after undergoing right hepatic lobectomy. She underwent a second operation for removal of a recurrent celiac lymph node tumor 23 months after the initial operation. In japan, the frequency of lymph node metastasis in ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma is only 1.6%, whereas 3 out of 9 (33%) reported domestic FLHCCs including this case had lymph node metastasis. The surgical management of lymph node metastasis in FLHCC is discussed.
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4/90. Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated with radiofrequency thermal ablation.

    We report a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who was successfully treated with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA). A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in August 1996 with recurrence of HCC. Partial hepatic resection had been performed in January 1993 for HCC that had measured 1.3 cm in segment VIII, and subsequently he had received six sessions of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for treatment of recurrence. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) performed in August 1996 showed two recurrent tumors, one measuring 3.8 cm in segment VIII adjacent to the right hepatic vein, and one measuring 2.0 cm in segment V. Three sessions of percutaneous RFA were performed. After this treatment, most of the tumor in segment VIII and all the tumor in segment V showed low density on dynamic CT, and the right hepatic vein was preserved. However, a remnant of the mass appeared near the right hepatic vein 2 months after the treatment. An additional two sessions of RFA were performed. After the end of treatment, serum alpha-fetoprotein level dropped to the normal range, and no sign of recurrence has been observed until September 1998.
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5/90. A case of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma treated with laparoscopic microwave coagulation therapy after minimally invasive hepatic surgery.

    A case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in which the patient repeatedly underwent minimally invasive hepatic procedures is reported. The patient was a 71-year-old man who underwent transthoracic microwave coagulation therapy (MCT) for initial HCC nodules in segment VIII and subsequent laparoscopic MCT for small intrahepatic recurrent nodules in the left hepatic lobe. At this writing, the patient was alive and well without tumor recurrence 29 months after the initial surgery. Minimally invasive hepatic surgery alleviates perihepatic adhesion and allows subsequent laparoscopic surgery in the case of intrahepatic HCC recurrence.
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ranking = 232.45602224321
keywords = microwave
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6/90. A long-term survivor undergoing extensive microwave coagulation for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Surgery for advanced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) has not been standardized. We report on a long-term tumor-free survivor who underwent extensive microwave coagulation therapy (MCT) for multiple bilobar HCCs. A 61 year-old woman was diagnosed to have bilobar HCCs, including a large tumor, 9 cm in diameter, and 4 small satellite nodules, associated with chronic hepatitis b. The patient had received repeated chemoembolizations using iodized oil, but the increased alpha-fetoprotein level did not fall to normal. The main tumor was unresectable because the tumor involved the caval vein and hepatic veins. The patient underwent extensive MCT with a total of 134 electrode insertions. The paracaval portion of the main tumor was meticulously coagulated under sonographic guidance to avoid vascular injury. The post-operative course was uneventful. Post-operative computed tomography (CT) showed complete necrosis of all tumors. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence for 4 years after MCT. This case proves that extensive MCT can provide a chance of cure in selected patients with multiple bilobar HCCs and centrally located HCCs near the caval vein.
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ranking = 232.45602224321
keywords = microwave
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7/90. Primary malignancy, secondary malignancy and semimalignancy of bone tumors.

    1. Bone tumors in contrast to tumors in soft tissue, show a wide variety of clinical behavior qualified by the expressions semimalignancy, low grade of malignancy, sarcomatous degeneration and primarily benign bone tumors and bone lesions. 2. The term semimalignancy is characterized by local invasive and destructive tumor growth with a tendency to recur locally but no hematogeneous spreading. Semimalignancy requires wide en-bloc resection of amputation. 3. The term low grade malignancy is used to describe a tumor of very slow growth and with very late metastasis. Low-grade malignancy requires resection with careful preservation of functional structures. 4. The term secondary malignancy means the sarcomatous degeneration of a primarily benign lesion or bone tumor. This transformation is enhanced by irradiation and probably by acceleration of the normal turnover of bone tissue. In Paget's disease sarcomatous degeneration is to be expected in 2 percent of cases and in fibrous dysplasia in 0.5 percent of cases. 5. Sarcomatous degeneration of bone infarcts is rare, but an increase is to be expected due to an increased frequency of bone infarcts caused by long-term treatment with cortisone. 6. Primary bone tumors and recurrences show the same structure and cytology. In a minority of cases the recurrences are less differentiated; in a very few cases the recurrences are more highly differentiated and have a better prognosis than the initial lesion.
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8/90. Laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy (LAH) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    The treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with liver cirrhosis necessitates local therapy in some patients because of severe hepatic dysfunction. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy, the local therapy for such cancer of the liver, and percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy are detailed. The significant disadvantages of these procedures is their inability to evaluate precisely whether the tumor will develop complete necrosis after treatment because the cancer tissue cannot be excised with use of these procedures. Conversely, laparoscopic hepatectomy, which is minimally invasive surgery, has a disadvantage, that is, its difficulty in complex maneuvers, including hemostasis, ligation, and suture. The authors developed laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy, which is hepatectomy by small incision during laparotomy with the use of laparoscopic observation. This report describes laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy, which may allow the solving of problems with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy, percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy, and laparoscopic hepatectomy.
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ranking = 92.982408897285
keywords = microwave
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9/90. Planning of hyperthermic treatment for malignant glioma using computer simulation.

    Interstitial hyperthermia was applied using a radiofrequency generator in the treatment of four malignant glioma patients who had especially deep seated brain tumours or were at high risk. Prior to heating tumours, treatment planning based on an accurate prediction of temperature distribution is essential. The present paper introduces a novel treatment planning method and discusses its clinical efficacy. The two-dimensional finite element method was used for simulation of temperature distribution, which was calculated using the bioheat transfer equation. This technique was applied to plan treatment. temperature was measured at two points during heating and these values were compared with those estimated by the simulation. In addition, the area of the contrast enhanced (CE) rim on the pre-heating computed tomography (CT) image was compared with the low density area of the CE rim on the post-heating CT image, which was obtained within 2 months after heating. The optimal position and number of radiofrequency (RF) electrodes to include the outside of the CE rim in the simulated area above 42 degrees C contour could be easily determined using this planning system in all cases. The temperature estimated by the simulation was in good agreement with the actual values obtained (within 0.4 degrees C). The post-heating CT image revealed that the hyperthermic procedure described herein achieved more than an 80% low density area within the CE rim in all cases (mean 86.0%). These results demonstrate that this novel treatment planning method may prove to be a clinically valuable tool in the treatment of malignant glioma with RF electrodes.
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10/90. Experience with radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pelvic recurrence in rectal cancer: report of two cases.

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pelvic recurrent rectal cancer. methods: Computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation was performed by placing a LeVeen needle electrode into the tumor. Radiofrequency ablation was performed on three lesions in two patients with pelvic recurrent rectal cancer, where the tumors were unresectable and associated with poorly controllable pain despite local treatment consisting of chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: There were no major complications during the radiofrequency ablation procedure, although one patient complained of a sensation of warmth in the pelvic region, which was reasonably tolerated. Case 1: Each of two lesions of pelvic recurrence, 3 or 4 cm in diameter, was treated once by radiofrequency ablation with placement of a needle electrode into the tumor mass. After the procedure, magnetic resonance imaging confirmed nearly complete necrosis of the tumors, and there was a sufficient relief of pain enabling discontinuation of an opioid. serum carcinoembryonic antigen returned to normal and there was no evidence of relapse six months after the treatment. Case 2: Radiofrequency ablation was performed by placing a needle electrode at two sites of a recurrent tumor 6 cm in diameter. Postradiofrequency ablation imaging showed viable tissue remnants along the tumor margin, but the treatment produced relief of pain. The procedure was effective in opioid dosage reduction and pain control within a limited time span. CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency ablation is a relatively readily maneuverable and safe local treatment for pelvic recurrence in rectal cancer and is considered a procedure worth applying with further accumulation of experience in clinical cases.
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