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1/337. Bone metastases from a paraganglioma. A review of five cases.

    Paragangliomas are infrequent, usually benign tumors developed from neuroectoderm cells. The neck is the most common location, although some cases arise within the abdominal cavity, usually in the retroperitoneal space. We report five cases with bone metastases. In three patients, convincing evidence was obtained that the primary was in the retroperitoneal space. Clinical manifestations of metastatic bone disease occurred up to 17 years after the diagnosis of paraganglioma. Useful data were obtained from plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, serum and urine catecholamine assays, and above all meta 123iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies of the lesion yielded the definite diagnosis. Surgery and radiation therapy are the two mainstays of therapy. Although rare, metastatic forms of paraganglioma should be borne in mind. This diagnosis should be entertained in patients with bone lesions and recent-onset arterial hypertension, irrespective of whether they report a history of surgery for a tumor, and even if this tumor was removed many years earlier and labeled benign.
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keywords = neck
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2/337. The place of irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumors of the salivary glands.

    1. radiation therapy is not indicated after surgical removal with adequate margins of low-grade tumor. 2. radiation therapy is indicated with a) Inadequate surgical margins in low-grade tumors b) All high-grade tumors c) All recurrent malignant tumors 3. Irradiation of nerve pathways is indicated with demonstrated nerve and perineural invasion and/or with adenoicystic carcinoma. 4. Irradiation of the entire ipsilateral neck is indicated a) Wtih high-grade tumors unless radical neck dissection shows negative nodes b) In the place of radical neck dissection.
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keywords = neck
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3/337. Malignant ameloblastoma of the maxilla.

    This case illustrates a rare occurrence of an ameloblastoma arising in the maxilla and metastasizing to the neck and lungs within a three-year period following the initial resection. A discussion of the pathology is presented and the necessity for aggressive initial therapy with close follow-up is emphasized.
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keywords = neck
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4/337. Osteochondroma and secondary synovial osteochondromatosis.

    Secondary synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is a rare disorder caused by a variety of joint disorders. Two unusual cases of secondary SOC are presented. The first patient is a 43-year-old man with extensive SOC developing within a bursa surrounding an osteochondroma of the pubic bone. The second patient is a 23-year-old man who developed florid and progressive SOC of his hip joint following excision of a femoral neck osteochondroma. SOC recurred despite three excisions over a 15-month period. Imaging was useful in pre-operative diagnosis of bursal SOC in the first patient and in detecting multiple recurrences in the second patient. Both cases illustrate prominent SOC developing secondary to osteochondroma. The different hypotheses regarding bursal and secondary SOC are reviewed.
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keywords = neck
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5/337. Stomal recurrence invading the cervicothoracic esophagus and upper mediastinum: resectability and the creation of a safe anterior mediastinal tracheostoma.

    Surgical salvage for stomal recurrence is a for midable problem for head and neck surgeons. The two factors of considerable significance are resectability and establishment of a safe anterior mediastinal tracheostoma. A case of stomal recurrence invading the cervicothoracic esophagus and upper mediastinum is presented. Total esophagectomy and upper mediastinal dissection was performed. The esophagus was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled gastric flap. The omentum on the gastric pedicle was wrapped around the trachea to reduce the likelihood of erosion into the great vessels and to supplement the lateral blood supply to the trachea. No serious postoperative complications were observed. We believe that the total esophagectomy improved the resectability, and that the bulk of the gastric pedicle and the use of the omentum prevented significant postoperative complications associated with an anterior mediastinal tracheostoma.
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keywords = neck
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6/337. liposarcoma of the hypopharynx. A case report and review of the literature.

    A new case of well differentiated hypopharyngeal liposarcoma is reported. The author reviews the literature about the clinical and histologic features of these tumors. From the 93 head and neck liposarcomas reported 13 are located in the hypopharynx. The mean age of presentation is 61 years and males are largely predominant. Etiology is still unknown. Tumor size does not seem to affect the prognosis. Usually patients do not present with cervical lymph node metastasis nor distant metastasis. Histologic diagnosis according to Enzinger and Weis's classification could be difficult especially to distinguish between lipoma and well differentiated liposarcoma. The main prognostic factor is histologic grade but early recognition combined with a complete surgical excision can result in a decreased local recurrence rate and high survival rate. Low grade tumors often recur locally but distant metastases are rare. From the 8 well differentiated tumors reviewed 6 presented a local recurrence 2 months to 20 years after surgery but only 1 patient died without disease. High grade tumors are much more aggressive locally and metastasize frequently. radiotherapy and chemotherapy are proposed in selected cases without evidence to be of value.
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keywords = neck
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7/337. Clinical delivery of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy for relapsed or second-primary head and neck cancer using a multileaf collimator with dynamic control.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concave dose distributions generated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were applied to re-irradiate three patients with pharyngeal cancer. patients, MATERIALS AND methods: Conventional radiotherapy for oropharyngeal (patients 1 and 3) or nasopharyngeal (patient 2) cancers was followed by relapsing or new tumors in the nasopharynx (patients 1 and 2) and hypopharynx (patient 3). Six non-opposed coplanar intensity modulated beams were generated by combining non-modulated beamparts with intensities (weights) obtained by minimizing a biophysical objective function. Beamparts were delivered by a dynamic MLC (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) forced in step and shoot mode. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Median PTV-doses (and ranges) for the three patients were 73 (65-78), 67 (59-72) and 63 (48-68) Gy. Maximum point doses to brain stem and spinal cord were, respectively, 67 Gy (60% of volume below 30 Gy) and 32 Gy (97% below 10 Gy) for patient 1; 60 Gy (69% below 30 Gy) and 34 Gy (92% below 10 Gy) for patient 2 and 21 Gy (96% below 10 Gy) at spinal cord for patient 3. Maximum point doses to the mandible were 69 Gy for patient 1 and 64 Gy for patient 2 with, respectively, 66 and 92% of the volume below 20 Gy. A treatment session, using the dynamic MLC, was finished within a 15-min time slot.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neck
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8/337. Primary epithelioid sarcoma of the scalp.

    This article retrospectively reviewed a case of epithelioid sarcoma of the scalp; a treatment plan for this type of neoplasm has not been well defined in the literature because of the rarity of sarcomas in general and sarcomas located in the head and neck in particular. No comparative results can be drawn when dealing with such lesion in the scalp. Early recognition with an aggressive approach to confirm the existence of an epithelioid sarcoma is mandatory; a high index of diagnostic awareness is needed to recognize this uncommon tumor. early diagnosis can only be auspicious. Early wide surgical resection is imperative to ensure better control of imperceptible tumor extension, and well-planned diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, rather than isolated management and referral for adjunctive treatment, is important.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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9/337. Malignant triton tumor of the head and neck: A case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Malignant triton tumor (MTT) is a relatively rare, aggressive tumor comprised of both malignant schwannoma cells and malignant rhabdomyoblasts. Because MTT frequently arises in the head and neck, the otolaryngologist must be aware of the nature of the tumor and its response to various treatment modalities. METHOD: This article reviews the treatment and outcome of all reported cases of MTT arising in the head and neck. CONCLUSIONS: Although statistical analysis is limited by the short duration of follow-up of many patients, complete tumor resection appears to carry an improved chance of survival. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may also improve survival, although a benefit of these therapies was not well demonstrated in this small series.
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ranking = 6
keywords = neck
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10/337. Distant lymphatic metastasis from head and neck cancer.

    A predictable pattern of metastasis based on tumor histology and site of origin has been well documented for most cancers that arise in the head and neck region. The current study demonstrates that this predictable pattern of metastasis can be significantly impacted by previous therapy, resulting in unusual patterns of metastasis in patients with recurrent tumors. A retrospective case series of 5 patients with head and neck carcinomas who developed metastases to distant lymph nodes is presented. All patients underwent surgery and radiotherapy to the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at the time of their initial treatment. All of the patients developed a local recurrence less than a year before the detection of distant lymphatic metastases. Cytology or excision confirmed metastases to the axillary, inguinal, or anterior intercostal lymph nodes. All of the patients underwent aggressive surgery for attempted cure of the local recurrence shortly before the presence of distant lymphatic metastases was clinically recognized. The metastatic workup of patients with carcinomas of the head and neck frequently includes examination of the regional lymph nodes as well as chest radiography, liver function tests, and serum calcium determination. This evaluation may fail to detect metastases to distant lymph nodes in patients who present with recurrent or second primary cancers. Such patients should undergo careful examination of all major lymph node-bearing regions of the body when being evaluated for the presence of distant metastases.
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ranking = 7
keywords = neck
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