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1/874. Recurrent malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour: local management with ethanol injection.

    We report a 59-year-old woman who exhibited a recurrent malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour on the scalp for 1 5 years. The tumour was recalcitrant to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation or hyperthermia and we performed intratumoral ethanol injection as an alternative means of reducing tumour mass and obtaining haemostasis. biopsy specimens obtained after the ethanol injection revealed oedema, haemorrhage in the dermis and degeneration of the tumour cells, showing vacuolization with pyknotic nuclei. For cases of recurrent skin tumours and for patients in poor clinical condition, intratumoral ethanol injection is likely to be a therapeutic alternative to surgery or other conventional treatments.
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2/874. anesthesia for cesarean section in two patients with brain tumours.

    PURPOSE: To describe two patients with brain tumours where general anesthesia was used for cesarean sections under emergency and urgent conditions. CLINICAL FEATURES (CASE #1): The first patient presented at 38 wk gestation with an acute intracranial tumour herniation, requiring emergency craniotomy and simultaneous cesarean section. General anesthesia was induced with thiopental and vecuronium, maintained with enflurane 1% in O2 100%. Maternal P(ET)CO2 was maintained at 25 mmHg. After delivering a healthy infant, she was given syntocinon, mannitol and dexamethasone i.v. anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl, nitrous oxide 50% in O2 and isoflurane 1% during frontal-lobe tumour resection. CLINICAL FEATURES (CASE #2): The second patient presented at 37 wk gestation for urgent cesarean section because of placental insufficiency. She had had a brain tumour resection four years earlier. An increase in intracranial pressure necessitated craniotomy for decompression at 20 wk gestation. She was further treated with dexamethasone, carbamazepine and radiation for control of cerebral oedema at 34 wk. cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia; rapid-sequence-induction with thiopental and succinylcholine, followed by isoflurane 1% in O2 100%. Syntocinon, fentanyl and atracurium i.v. were administered after delivery of a healthy infant. Although neurosurgeons stood by, their intervention was unnecessary. CONCLUSION: General anesthesia remains safe and dependable for operative delivery in parturients with intracranial tumour. Tracheal intubation allows maternal hyperventilation thereby controlling raised intracranial pressure. Hemodynamic stability is readily achieved to maintain cerebral perfusion. However, a multidisciplinary-team approach is critical for successful patient management.
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3/874. Bone metastases from a paraganglioma. A review of five cases.

    Paragangliomas are infrequent, usually benign tumors developed from neuroectoderm cells. The neck is the most common location, although some cases arise within the abdominal cavity, usually in the retroperitoneal space. We report five cases with bone metastases. In three patients, convincing evidence was obtained that the primary was in the retroperitoneal space. Clinical manifestations of metastatic bone disease occurred up to 17 years after the diagnosis of paraganglioma. Useful data were obtained from plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, serum and urine catecholamine assays, and above all meta 123iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies of the lesion yielded the definite diagnosis. Surgery and radiation therapy are the two mainstays of therapy. Although rare, metastatic forms of paraganglioma should be borne in mind. This diagnosis should be entertained in patients with bone lesions and recent-onset arterial hypertension, irrespective of whether they report a history of surgery for a tumor, and even if this tumor was removed many years earlier and labeled benign.
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keywords = radiation
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4/874. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of bone. A review of three cases.

    The recently individualized and still incompletely understood family of peripheral neuroectodermal tumors encompasses several tumor types, of which some have a predilection for bone. Immunocytochemical studies are essential and usually provide the diagnosis. A t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation is present in over 80% of cases. Ewing's sarcoma is now viewed as an undifferentiated form of peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, and both tumors require management with combination chemotherapy plus radiation therapy and/or surgery. Contradictory data have been reported regarding the comparative prognosis of peripheral neuroectodermal tumor and Ewing's sarcoma, indicating a need for further studies in large numbers of patients. We illustrate these points by three case-reports, two in girls diagnosed with a vertebral primary at five and nine years of age, respectively, and one in a man diagnosed with a pelvic primary at 29 years of age.
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keywords = radiation
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5/874. The place of irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumors of the salivary glands.

    1. radiation therapy is not indicated after surgical removal with adequate margins of low-grade tumor. 2. radiation therapy is indicated with a) Inadequate surgical margins in low-grade tumors b) All high-grade tumors c) All recurrent malignant tumors 3. Irradiation of nerve pathways is indicated with demonstrated nerve and perineural invasion and/or with adenoicystic carcinoma. 4. Irradiation of the entire ipsilateral neck is indicated a) Wtih high-grade tumors unless radical neck dissection shows negative nodes b) In the place of radical neck dissection.
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ranking = 6
keywords = radiation
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6/874. Desmoplastic spindle-cell melanoma of the eyelid with orbital invasion.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinicopathologic features of a patient with a spindle-cell melanoma of the eyelid that exhibited orbital invasion. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A slowly enlarging mass developed in the eyelid of a 50-year-old woman. Excision of the mass showed desmoplastic spindle-cell melanoma. The tumor recurred in the orbit, and an exenteration was performed. A second recurrence 7 months later was treated with radiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: There is a continuum of spindle-cell to desmoplastic melanoma. The prognosis of patients with orbital invasion of melanoma is poor, and adjuvant treatment including radiation and chemotherapy has little benefit.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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7/874. Rapid progression of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix after hyperbaric oxygenation.

    The role of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of radiation-induced sequelae and chronic ulcer is well established. On the contrary, a possible cancer-causing or growth-enhancing effect by hyperbaric oxygenation was highly controversial. Herein, we present a 55-year-old Chinese woman with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix on her left inguinal area. She received concurrent chemoradiation therapy followed by radical inguinal lymphadenectomy due to persistent tumor mass. The patient was complicated with severe radiation fibrosis and unhealed wounds, so she was treated with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). However, the patient died of complications of the disease after completing HBO therapy I month later and autopsy of the patient showed carcinomatosis of the abdominal cavity and lower abdominal wall. Because previous studies have been inconclusive regarding the effect of HBO on tumor cells, we reviewed the possible relation between the HBO and tumor cells.
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ranking = 3
keywords = radiation
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8/874. Ductal carcinoma in situ recurrent on the chest wall after mastectomy.

    Two patients with local recurrence on the chest wall subsequent to mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are presented. One recurrence was invasive carcinoma and the second was DCIS. Excision and chest wall irradiation, together with chemotherapy in the first patient, have provided subsequent disease-free survivals of 6 and 12 years respectively. Although mastectomy for DCIS is almost always curative, the possibility of local recurrence requires careful surveillance.
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ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
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9/874. Recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma arising in sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus tract: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Carcinoma arising in a pilonidal sinus is a rare complication. This study reports the case of a patient with recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma arising in a sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus tract. methods: This patient was treated with a wide local excision and mesh grafts. Three months later the patient was treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. RESULTS: The patient died two years later from recurrence in inguinal lymph nodes, liver, and lungs. CONCLUSION: Some authors propose consideration of treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in addition to complete local excision as a possible means to decrease the local recurrence rate.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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10/874. Histologic transformation of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of salivary gland.

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin (PLGA) was initially described in 1984 and has since become an established clinicopathologic entity. Owing to the indolent nature of PLGA and its relatively recent description, the full clinicopathologic spectrum of this entity has not been elucidated fully. Transformation to a histologically different-appearing lesion or progression to a higher histologic grade has not been reported. We describe 2 PLGAs arising in the palate and associated with multiple locoregional recurrences that were treated with excision and radiation therapy. This was followed by histologic transformation to a higher grade neoplasm after 17 and 26 years, respectively. The histologic appearance after transformation was characterized by a predominantly solid and cystic growth pattern, nuclear atypia with prominent nucleoli, and foci of necrosis. High-grade transformation of PLGA may occur after a protracted clinical course with multiple recurrences of typical PLGA. The possible role of radiation therapy as an initiator of this transformation merits further study. Tumors with these histologic features should not be included under the rubric of typical PLGA. Segregation of these neoplasms will allow further study of their biologic potential, particularly with regard to possible increased rates of local recurrence and metastasis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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