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1/13. hypnosis instead of general anaesthesia in paediatric radiotherapy: report of three cases.

    PURPOSE: This report proposes hypnosis as a valid alternative to general anaesthesia for immobilisation and set-up in certain cases in paediatric radiotherapy. methods: We report three cases of children who underwent radiotherapy in 1994 and were treated using hypnosis for set-up during irradiation. The first and the second were two cases of macroscopic resection of cerebellar medulloblastoma in which craniospinal irradiation was necessary, while the third patient suffered of an endorbitary relapse of retinoblastoma previously treated with bilateral enucleation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy; in this last situation the child needed radiation as palliative therapy. hypnosis was used during treatment to obtain the indispensable immobility. Hypnotic conditioning was obtained by our expert psychotherapist while the induction during every single treatment was made by the clinician, whose voice was presented to the children during the conditioning. RESULTS: Every single fraction of the radiation therapy was delivered in hypnosis and without the need for narcosis. CONCLUSIONS: hypnosis may be useful in particular situations to prepare paediatric cancer patients during irradiation, when lack of child collaboration might necessitate the use of general anaesthesia and when anaesthesia itself is not possible.
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2/13. Laryngeal diversion and tracheotracheal speech fistula for chronic aspiration.

    Intractable aspiration is a life-threatening problem and often requires a procedure for blocking or separating the larynx from the bronchial tree. The disadvantage of these techniques is a compromise of phonation. We report the use of a speech fistula after laryngotracheal diversion to restore voice. It allows for the definitive treatment of aspiration, while maintaining the use of the vocal folds for phonation.
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3/13. Modified supracricoid partial laryngectomy with cricohyoidopexy: series report and analysis of results.

    Aiming to improve voice quality and to facilitate swallowing rehabilitation, we modified the supracricoid partial laryngectomy with cricohyoidopexy by preserving the posterior segment of the true vocal cord on the less involved side of the larynx. Between 1983 and 1994, 13 patients with supraglottic cancer were treated with this modified procedure. The possibility of incomplete tumor excision was eliminated by careful patient selection and intraoperative reconfirmation of tumor extent with frozen sections. Our results have been promising, with a 76.9% 3-year survival rate and a 69.2% laryngeal preservation rate. There were 7 recurrences, 3 local (2 at the superior border of the cricoid and 1 at the cricoarytenoid region) and 4 nodal, in 5 patients. Distant metastases developed in another patient. Three patients, 2 with local and nodal recurrence and 1 with distant metastases, died of disease. Functional outcomes were also good, with all patients achieving normal swallowing by the end of the first year, although 5 patients required temporary gastrostomy for transient swallowing impairment. Early decannulation and satisfactory voice quality were achieved in all cases. We believe that with proper patient selection this modified procedure is effective both for tumor control and for preserving a more functional larynx.
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4/13. Laryngeal structure following microcauterization.

    The paper supports and reaffirms the objectives of contemporary laryngology in the treatment of cancer of this organ. These objectives are, first and foremost, the eradication of the tumor, and second, the preservation of function. A relatively recent contribution to the "state of the art" has been the development of the field of microlaryngology. The introduction of the surgical microscope has provided the laryngologist with better means to judge the type, localization and extent of neoplastic lesions. Reports indicate that superficial limited carcinomas of the larynx with good vocal cord mobility can be successfully treated by vocal cord stripping and/or radiotherapy. This paper presents the serious challenge posed by these limited tumors when they recur after radiotherapy. In a selected number of these patients radical surgery has been prevented by treating these recurrent tumors with the microcautery. Some of these patients, so treated, have been free of disease for more than three years after their recurrent tumors were destroyed with the microcautery. During this time these patients have enjoyed adequate voices. Extensive studies that have been performed in dogs with the microcautery indicate that: a. An excellent recovery of the larynx is the rule, if microcauterization is carried out superficially. These initial experiments were performed on 10 dogs, duplicating the type and extension of microcauterization, as this procedure is usually performed clinically in the treatment of patients. b. The anterior and posterior commissures of the larynx were found understandably vulnerable to severe degrees of cauterization.
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5/13. Office-based treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis with percutaneous injection of cidofovir.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to report our experience with office-based treatment of severe laryngeal papillomatosis with percutaneous injection of cidofovir in a case series of 5 patients. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a retrospective review of a case series in a tertiary academic care voice disorders clinic. adult patients with papillomas of the vocal cords and anterior commissure received percutaneous injection using a point-touch technique. Clinical improvement or remission of the papillomatosis was noted. RESULTS: Before initiation of office treatments, patients required direct laryngoscopy and CO(2) laser ablation of papillomas on average every 2.8 months. There were no complications related to the injection technique. During a treatment period of 7 to 16 months (mean 12 months), a significant reduction in the volume of papillomatosis was achieved in all patients. One patient received 2 treatments and another received 1 treatment in the operating room for final clearance of papillomas. CONCLUSION: Office-based treatment of adult patients with anterior laryngeal papillomatosis using percutaneous injection of cidofovir reduces the need for repeated direct laryngoscopy and laser ablation under general anesthesia. SIGNIFICANCE: Percutaneous injection treatment with cidofovir is a useful adjunct to direct laryngoscopy and laser ablation in the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis.
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6/13. epidermodysplasia verruciformis: 14 members of a pedigree with an intriguing squamous cell carcinoma transformation.

    A 38-year-old farmer was apparently well until 5 years of age. At this age, the patient's mother found mildly itchy, raised eruptions over the scalp during combing of the scalp hair. Since then, the eruptions have progressed insidiously to involve the face and other parts of the body, with a preponderance over the face, upper back, and chest, including the palms. The soles, oral cavity, and genital tract were unaffected. The lesions were persistent in nature and showed no remission or exacerbation. Mild to moderate pruritus/discomfort was experienced following sunlight exposure. A prominent, raised eruption appeared on the right side of the forehead 9 years ago, 25 years after the initial eruptions, which in due course ulcerated. It was progressive in nature and acquired a large size. Two years later, it was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, for which liquid nitrogen cryosurgery was performed. There was a recurrence of the lesion at the site of surgery, which was excised 4 months later. Subsequently, there was a sudden flare up at the same site. It was badly infected with maggot infestation. The relentless course of the disease was evident by the appearance of two similar lesions, one on the right half of the nose and the other on the left preauricular region. A short while ago, fatigue and loss of weight were also recorded. Bladder and bowel functions were normal and there was no loss of appetite, hoarseness of voice, or breathlessness. Four of the patient's six children (three sons and one daughter) were reported to have similar lesions all over the body. In addition, nine other relatives were also affected. Accordingly, a total of 14 (12 males and two females) family members were found to be affected from amongst 41 individuals (26 males and 15 females) spread across several generations (Fig. 1). There was a second-degree consanguinity of marriage, with the patient's grandmother and wife's father being brother and sister. skin surface examination was marked by multiple, discrete, flat-topped, scaly, brownish-black papules of diverse morphology, from hypopigmented macules to verrucous lesions, with a few coalescing to form plaques. The scales were brown, dry, and adherent (Fig. 2a). The lesions were conspicuous by their presence over the face, neck, and front and back of the chest. The extremities were also affected. Nevertheless, the soles and genitalia were spared. The oral mucosae, hair, and nails were normal. Koebner's phenomenon was explicit, whereas Auspitz's sign was not demonstrable. In addition, a perceptible nodulo-ulcerative lesion (size, 3 in x 2 in) with indurated, raised, averted margins was encountered on the right side of the forehead. The ulcer was tender and had a fetid discharge. Necrotic slough was prominent over its base. Similar lesions were located on the left preauricular region and right half of the nose. hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections prepared from biopsies taken from representative lesions of epidermodysplasia verruciformis and squamous cell carcinoma revealed their diagnostic features. epidermodysplasia verruciformis showed features of hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with hardly any papillomatosis. Marginal elongation of the rete ridges was present. Extensive vacuolization was a remarkable feature, and was largely confined to the upper stratum Malpighian and the granular cell layer. Some of the vacuolated cells were fairly large; their nuclei were located in the center and had variable pyknosis. The granular cell layer was uniformly thickened, whereas the stratum corneum had a loosely felted (basket-weave) appearance. The dermis was apparently normal (Fig. 2b,c). The other microsection(s) from squamous cell carcinoma were conspicuous by the presence of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and irregular masses of epidermal cells, proliferating downwards and invading the dermis. Varying proportions of differentiated squamous cells formed their bulk. These cells were atypical, characterized by variations in size and shape, hyperplasia and hyperchromasia of the nuclei, absence of prickles, chas, characterization of individual cells, and the presence of both mitotic and atypical mitotic figures (Fig. 3b).
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7/13. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in a survivor of extreme prematurity.

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease in children. Previous reports suggested that prematurity and early age of presentation were poor prognostic factors. We report on a 24-week premature infant who presented with stridor, weak cry, and hoarseness of voice at age 9 months (corrected age), in whom the diagnosis of RRP was not made until age 21 months (corrected age). Laser excision of RRP was subsequently performed, and the child is still surviving at age 2.5 years. RRP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of airway problems in survivors of extreme prematurity; the prognosis is not uniformly poor in premature infants.
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8/13. chondrosarcoma of the larynx: a report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    chondrosarcoma of the larynx: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. This paper describes two cases of low-grade laryngeal chondrosarcoma. In both cases, the tumours were located on the cricoid, and could be visualized with a CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis was made by a deep wedge biopsy with a CO2 laser, and after subtotal supracricoid laryngectomy. Most of the reported cases have been successfully managed by voice-sparing surgery, but the two cases reported here, needed more radical treatment.
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9/13. Juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis: report of five cases from papua new guinea.

    Five cases of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis encountered in papua new guinea during the period from December 1987 to May 1989 are described in detail. They were seen in the age-range of 1 year 7 months-5 years. The common clinical features were change of voice and dyspnoea. They were treated by microlaryngoscopic excision with cupped forceps. One of the cases followed-up for 15 months showed multiple recurrences. This condition of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis, though not common, is certainly not rare in this country and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of a child presenting with progressive dyspnoea.
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10/13. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in children: masquerader of common respiratory diseases.

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in children is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening benign tumor of the respiratory tract with laryngeal predilection. The diagnosis of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis may be challenging unless there is a high index of suspicion and awareness of the variable presentations. methods: We reviewed the medical charts of children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis treated at a tertiary children's hospital. The presentation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is illustrated by a series of case reports. We provide a paradigm to assist in the early diagnosis of children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. RESULTS: Five patients, aged 2 to 6 years, were erroneously diagnosed with recurrent croup, asthma, laryngeal hemangioma, and tracheomalacia after presenting with variable degrees of chronic dyspnea, cough, stridor, dysphonia, weak cry, and syncope. Once the diagnosis of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was made, recurring surgical ablation of papillomata was initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Any child presenting with a voice disturbance with or without stridor is recommended to have diagnostic flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis should be considered in children when other common pediatric airway diseases either do not follow the natural history or do not respond to treatment of the common disorder.
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