Cases reported "Neoplasm Seeding"

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1/28. Metastasis to a percutaneous gastrostomy site from head and neck cancer: radiobiologic considerations.

    BACKGROUND: The use of percutaneously placed feeding tubes has increased in recent years in an effort to maintain adequate caloric balance in patients receiving combined therapy for head and neck cancers, particularly concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. methods: We report a case of a metastasis to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site occurring in a patient with an advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma and review the published literature regarding this subject. Radiobiologic principles were examined to explain the most likely cause of such metastases. RESULTS: Six cases of percutaneous endoscopic site metastases occurring in patients with head and neck primary tumors have been reported in the literature. The interval from performance of the procedure to development of the metastases ranged from 3 to 16 months. Tumor kinetics suggest that a significant tumor burden (10(5)-10(6) cells) would need to be present at the site to manifest a metastatic lesion in such a short time interval. CONCLUSIONS: The development of metastases at percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy sites is a relatively uncommon occurrence. Direct tumor implantation by means of instrumentation at the time of the procedure is most likely explanation for such metastases, although hematogenous seeding cannot be completely discounted. Techniques should be used so as not to disrupt the tumor bed, particularly when gross residual disease is present.
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2/28. Metastasis of head and neck carcinoma to the site of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: case report and literature review.

    BACKGROUND: patients with head and neck cancer often need a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy to provide adequate nutrition because of inability to swallow after tumor radiation therapy. However, metastasis of the original tumor to the gastrostomy exit site may occur. methods: We describe the case of a 61-year-old man with stage III (T2 N1) squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in whom a PEG tube was placed to circumvent anticipated difficulties in swallowing after radiation therapy. We also compare this case with similar cases in the literature. RESULTS: Soreness and erythema near the gastrostomy site reported by the patient were diagnosed as cellulitis, and two courses of antibiotic treatment were prescribed. However, a biopsy showed that the original squamous cell carcinoma had metastasized to the gastrostomy exit site. The "pull" method of tube placement had been used in this patient and in all 19 cases of metastasis reported in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic cancer should be considered in patients with head and neck cancer who have unexplained skin changes at the gastrostomy site. Our experience with this case and review of the literature indicate that, in patients with head and neck cancer, "pull" procedures for placement of gastrostomy tubes may induce metastasis by direct implantation of tumor cells because of contact between the gastrostomy tube and tumor cells. methods of tube insertion that avoid such contact are preferred.
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3/28. Implantation metastasis of head and neck cancer after fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    One possible complication of the aspiration biopsy of malignant tumors is dissemination of tumor cells along the needle track. However, a search of the literature revealed few definite reports of implantation metastases of head and neck tumors after fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Here we report two cases of skin metastasis of head and neck cancer after FNAB, including a patient with papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and one with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland. Surgical treatment prevented the spread of the tumor in both cases and there have been no evidence of recurrence to date. This report should alert head and neck surgeons to the possibility of implantation metastasis after FNAB.
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4/28. Implantation of oral squamous cell carcinoma at the site of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a case report.

    A 55-year-old man had an operation and radiotherapy for a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and developed a metastatic deposit at the site of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, with no other evidence of systemic spread. Treatment of the metastasis was by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by en bloc resection of the stomal recurrence on the anterior abdominal wall. There has been no evidence of recurrence to date. Only 17 other cases of metastasis to this site from a primary tumour in the upper aerodigestive tract have been reported. We review the relevant publications and discuss the techniques, complications and possible mechanisms of spread and their implications for the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in head and neck cancer surgery.
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5/28. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy associated gastric metastasis.

    An interesting case of gastric metastasis of head and neck cancer after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement is presented. Gastric metastases may appear in 3 morphologic varieties endoscopically. They may be multiple nodules of varying size, submucosal tumor masses with tip ulceration, or nonulcerated masses. Histologically, they may be seen as microscopic infiltration, a gross nodule, gross ulceration, or a gross hypertrophied wall. A case of PEG associated gastric metastasis has been reported almost every year since 1989. Even then, PEG placement by pull method continues to be a common procedure for patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer. The mechanism of gastric metastasis in patients with PEG is unclear. Seeding as well as hematogenous and lymphatic spread to traumatized tissue may be the cause.
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6/28. Thyroid implants after surgery and blunt trauma.

    The differential diagnosis of thyroid tissue found laterally in the neck includes several conditions: lymph node deposits of thyroid carcinoma, "benign metastatic thyroidosis," detached thyroid nodules, and true ectopic thyroid tissue. We have studied nine cases with thyroid deposits in the soft tissues of the neck that do not conform to these diagnoses. We present evidence that they represent surgical or traumatic implantation of thyroid neoplasms. Eight of the nine cases presented one to 26 years after initial surgery. Adequate information of the operative procedure was available in seven cases, one patient underwent subtotal lobectomy and six subtotal thyroidectomy for a nodular gland. The nodules occurred within the operation field with no evidence that they were within lymph nodes. In six cases, birefringent particles consistent with talc from the earlier operation were found adjacent to the nodules. Three cases showed implants of colloid nodules, three of follicular adenoma, one of oncocytic (Hurthle) cell adenoma and one of follicular carcinoma. In the ninth case, infiltrating thyroid tissue in muscle and fibrous tissue presented 3 years after major blunt trauma to the neck. The tissue resembled that in a disrupted thyroid nodule present in the gland itself and was regarded as traumatically implanted. The observation that surgery or trauma to a nodular thyroid can occasionally lead to multiple subcutaneous thyroid implants has implication for management of thyroid disease. Therapy may be difficult; recurrence followed surgical removal of the nodules in three cases, and radioiodine may be a more effective therapy. Recognition of this entity is important for accurate pathologic diagnosis. It is apparently limited to implantation of tumor. The absence of implantation of normal or hyperplastic thyroid, despite the high frequency of partial thyroidectomy in Graves' disease, has pathobiological implications. These findings also support the generally held view that lobectomy rather than nodulectomy is the operation of choice for a solitary nodule.
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7/28. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis following craniofacial resection of an ethmoid tumor.

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is a rare complication following treatment for head and neck cancer. In this paper, we report a case of LMC following surgery and localized radiation therapy for an ethmoid carcinoma, in which laceration of the dura during craniofacial resection may have provided an access for cancer cells into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a result, the patient developed LMC manifested as multiple spinal nerve root involvement. The patient died 3 months after the diagnosis of LMC. To avoid this type of complication, special care must be taken to prevent tears in the dura during craniofacial resection. Also, we recommend CSF examination be performed prior to radical surgery if there is any suspicion of meningeal invasion.
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8/28. Puncture-site metastasis in a radiologically inserted gastrostomy tube: case report and literature review.

    gastrostomy-site metastases from head and neck cancer have been reported numerous times following endoscopic insertion, with direct implantation being implicated. We present the first reported case of gastrostomy-site metastasis following radiological insertion, and discuss the mechanisms by which this may have occurred. These include: direct implantation, hematogenous dissemination, or the natural shedding of tumor cells into the gastrointestinal tract.
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9/28. incidence of abdominal wall metastasis complicating PEG tube placement in untreated head and neck cancer.

    BACKGROUND: abdominal wall metastasis after PEG tube placement has been reported in patients with head and neck cancer. The incidence of this occurrence is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the incidence of abdominal wall metastasis as a complication of PEG tube placement in patients with head and neck cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and research Institute, nutritional support Services. SUBJECTS: head and neck cancer patients requiring nutritional support with PEG tube placement. RESULTS: Of the 304 patients with head and neck cancer, 218 had active disease with a viable tumor in the oropharynx or hypopharynx at the time of PEG placement. Two of these patients, both with active disease (0.92%), developed a PEG site metastasis. CONCLUSION: There is a small but definite risk for tumor implantation in the gastrostomy site when using the pull technique in patients with active head and neck cancer. Careful assessment of the oropharynx and hypopharynx before PEG tube placement and the use of alternative techniques for enteral access in patients with untreated or residual malignancy are recommended to minimize this risk. Use of other percutaneous techniques that do not involve traversing the hypopharynx with the catheter may help to prevent tumor translocation. When head and neck cancers metastasize to the gastrostomy site, patient survival appears limited even with extensive resection.
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10/28. Stomal seeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Presented is the first known case of squamous cell carcinoma that developed at the site of a "pull" type percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy stoma. The patient had advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx when the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was placed. This article should serve as a warning of this potential complication. Alternate techniques and other precautionary methods are described.
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