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1/7. Amphicrine tumor.

    The term amphicrine refers to cells, and tumors, which show both exocrine and endocrine features. Author s aim was to analyse the characteristics of these neoplasms. 40 suspicious cases were reviewed. Mucin-stains (PAS, diastase-PAS, Stains-all, Alcian-blue), immunohistochemistry (antibodies against Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), and chromogranin a (CGA), and electronmicroscopic studies were performed to demonstrate exocrine and/or endocrine features of the tumor cells. By means of these methods, 16 cases turned out to be amphicrine tumors. Among them, there were 4 sinonasal, 1 bronchial, 1 mediastinal, 8 gastrointestinal and 2 suprarenal gland neoplasms. In connection to the subject, a brief review is given of amphicrine tumor, regarding its etiological and pathological aspects. These tumors form a distinct clinicopathological entity and should be separated from both neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas.
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2/7. Mixed tumors, myoepitheliomas, and oncocytomas of the soft tissues are likely members of the same family: a clinicopathologic and ultrastructural study.

    Four diagnostically unusual soft tissue tumors are presented. All lesions were of consistent size and long duration. Histologically, one lesion was analogous to mixed tumors of the usual sites (i.e., salivary glands), one lesion was totally spindled, and the two other lesions both had oncocytic appearances (epithelioid and spindle biphasic pattern in a case, purely epithelioid in the other). Immunohistochemically, the mixed tumor was positive for vimentin, cytokeratins, S-100 protein, and focally for EMA. The purely spindled tumor exhibited immunoreactivity for vimentin, actins, S-100 protein, EMA (focally), and GFAP. The oncocytic biphasic tumor was positive for mitochondrial antigen, vimentin, and actins. The purely epithelioid oncocytic neoplasm was immunoreactive only for mitochondrial antigen and vimentin. Ultrastructurally, in the epithelial-like portion of the first (mixed) tumor, peripheral arrays of contractile filaments were detected along with well-developed desmosomes. In the second (spindled) case, peripheral contractile filaments and attenuated desmosomes were also seen. In the third case, a huge number of mitochondria, some desmosomes, and actin-type microfilaments were found. In the fourth case, desmosomes and punctate subplasmalemmal densities, in addition to numerous mitochondria, were documented. In all cases an external basal lamina were present, which was discontinuous in the first three cases and almost continuous in the fourth. These tumors were respectively designated as mixed tumor, myoepithelioma of the classic type, myoepithelioma of oncocytic type with biphasic cell architecture, and true oncocytoma. So far, all tumors have followed benign clinical courses (median follow up: 12 months). Comparisons with similar tumors of other sites are drawn, and suggestions for considering all of them as members of the same myoepithelial-derived tumor family are given.
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3/7. Papillary glioneuronal tumor--a new tumor entity.

    Glioneuronal neoplasms of the CNS comprises a heterogeneous group of generally low-grade tumors expressing glial and neuronal cells of varying differentiation. Recently, a new variant of the glioneuronal tumors has been identified. We present a case of a glioneuronal tumor located in the left frontal lobe of a 16-year-old boy who developed seizures 6 months after brain concussion. MR scan demonstrated an irregular, but well circumscribed, mixed cystic and solid tumor with contrast enhancement in the solid part. histology showed a papillary glioneuronal tumor. The tumor is indolent with no sign of recurrence after gross total resection.
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4/7. Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor: results of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy.

    Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor (IDSRT) is a rare neoplasm, which is malignant and typically occurs in young adults. Although IDSRT is chemotherapy-sensitive, most cases do not achieve a complete response (CR). Even if some cases achieve a CR, they often relapse and result in poor prognosis. We report two cases of IDSRT, in a 24-year-old man and a 23-year-old man, who were treated with ifosfamide-based chemotherapy. Case 1, a 24-year-old man, presented with an abdominal mass, and the diagnosis of the biopsy specimen at laparoscopy was IDSRT. He received 7 courses of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy, which obtained a partial response (PR). He had no surgical resection, except for the biopsy procedure, and he underwent a total of 21 courses of chemotherapy. He died 36 months after diagnosis because of tumor regrowth and peritoneal bleeding. Case 2, a 23-year-old man, whose biopsy material allowed a diagnosis of IDSRT, was treated with 18 courses of chemotherapy, using ifosfamide, that resulted in a PR. This was followed by resection of the abdominal lesions, and he received an additional 2 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. Four months after, completion of these 2 courses, the tumor recurred, and he died of diffuse pulmonary metastasis 36 months after diagnosis. This case report examines the results of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in our two patients.
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5/7. Nested stromal epithelial tumor of the liver: six cases of a distinctive pediatric neoplasm with frequent calcifications and association with cushing syndrome.

    Rare cases of nonhepatocytic mixed stromal and epithelial tumors of the liver with associated calcification and ossification have been described previously. We report 6 similar cases in children, including 2 cases associated with ectopic ACTH production. The patients were between 2 and 14 years of age at diagnosis. All tumors presented as a solitary liver mass with no extrahepatic involvement. Two adolescent females with palpable abdominal tumors presented with cushing syndrome that abated after excision of the tumors. The other children had tumors identified incidentally on imaging studies or at laparotomy. All tumors were well circumscribed, ranging in size from 4.0 to 30.0 cm in greatest diameter. Histologically, they shared an organoid arrangement of cellular nests that were comprised of an admixture of both spindled and epithelioid cells. These cellular nests were surrounded by a band of delicate myofibroblasts and set in a dense fibrous stroma that contained slit-like to dilated blood vessels. A variable proliferation of bile ducts extended from the fibrous stroma and focally surrounded the cellular nests. One case showed a sheet-like overgrowth of the nested cells with associated necrosis. The cellular nest cells were immunoreactive for EMA, CD56, neuron specific enolase, pan-cytokeratin (4 of 6 cases), vimentin (5 of 6 cases), and WT-1 amino terminus (4 of 6 cases). Cytokeratin and EMA stained mostly epithelioid nest cells, with vimentin and WT-1 staining predominantly the spindled nest cells. The 3 cases from adolescent females showed immunoreactivity for ACTH in the nested cell population but not in the surrounding stromal cells. Immunohistochemical stains for synaptophysin and chromogranin were negative in all cases. Psammomatous calcifications were present focally in 2 cases and were extensive in 3 cases. Ossification or osteoid formation was present in 4 cases. The 1 patient whose tumor had sheet-like overgrowth of the nested cell population had a local recurrence with multiple hepatic nodules 1 year following the original resection. A 2-year-old patient has been subsequently diagnosed with nephroblastomatosis and wilms tumor of the kidney. Follow-up information was available in an additional 3 patients with no tumor recurrence or metastatic disease at 2, 3, and 14 years.
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keywords = neoplasm
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6/7. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney in a 12-year-old girl.

    Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK) is a rare kidney neoplasm that almost exclusively occurs in perimenopausal women, and long-term estrogen replacement is relevant to its pathogenesis. Herein is described an atypical case of MESTK uncovered in a 12-year-old premenarcheal girl without a history of prior estrogen use. On surgical specimen it was found that the well-circumscribed tumor measuring 14 cm arose from the lower pole of the right kidney, showing solid and fibrous-cystic areas. Microscopically, it was composed both of epithelial structures similar to renal tubules and stroma comprising non-specific spindle cells. Some intratumoral tubules showed affinities to distal-nephron-specific lectins, and those immunoreactive for proximal-tubule-specific CD15 were also present. In addition, primitive ductal structures were reactive both for CD15 and lectins, but immature epithelial elements typical of nephroblastoma were absent. Spindle cells were positive for actin, desmin and vimentin, and expressed progesterone and estrogen receptors. The tumor was comparable with MESTK, although some epithelia were associated with the immunophenotype of proximal tubules. The patient was free of disease postoperatively for 40 months. In the present case, remnants of the primitive periductal mesenchyme might be promoted to neoplastic cells by a sex-steroid surge during puberty.
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7/7. Novel low-grade glioneuronal neoplasm presenting in an octogenarian: case report and review of the literature.

    Glioneuronal neoplasms are rare tumors that typically affect patients in the first three decades of life. Since the publication of the world health organization (WHO) 2000 classification of tumors, further variants of these tumors have been reported. We present an 83-year-old gentleman who presented with a history of ataxia and weight loss. MRI and CT scan revealed a ring-enhancing bihemispheric lesion in the premotor cortex consistent with a malignant primary brain tumor crossing the corpus collosum. The patient underwent a sterotactic biopsy with drainage of the cystic component. Histopathologic studies revealed a mixed glioneuronal tumor with benign characteristics. A craniotomy was performed and the tumor was resected. Postoperatively, the patient has been followed with serial MRI scans with no evidence of disease recurrence at 27 months. Glioneuronal tumors are extremely uncommon in the octogenarian population, however, it is important to include them in the differential diagnosis of intracerebral masses. They are histopathologically quite heterogeneous, and in this report we present a novel subtype. Radiographically, these lesions can mimic more aggressive primary brain tumors.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = neoplasm
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