Cases reported "Neoplasms, Experimental"

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1/3. Endolymphatic isotope and BCG in the management of malignant melanoma.

    Endolymphatic isotope therapy had such promising early clinical results that the M.R.C. (Medical research Council) U.K. set up a clinical trial in 1966. This was to compare the effect of endolymphatic isotope therapy with the results of standard methods in the treatment of lower limb malignant melanoma. The interim report had three groups for analysis: Standard methods (S); Endolymphatic Satisfactory (ES); and Endolymphatic Unsatisfactory (EU). This third group was a subdivision, as a significant number of patients did not have the correct endolymphatic treatment. The five-year survival figures expressed as actuarial percentages were ES=78.8%; S=82.3%; and EU=57.3%. Lymph node recurrence showed a significant difference: ES=2.3%; EU=12%; and S=19%. The conclusions were that endolymphatic isotope therapy was justified in specialized centres where good results could be obtained. Further animal experiments using the VX2 tumour in rabbits indicated that BCG given intracutaneously or intravenously had no therapeutic effect, whereas when applied by intralymphatic injection BCG was successful in treating lymph node metastases. Nineteen patients with poor-prognosis malignant melanoma have received endolymphatic BCG. The clinical results are recorded in this paper and are sufficiently encouraging to warrant its continued use.
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2/3. Attempt at local administration of anticancer agents in the form of fat emulsion.

    A fat emulsion when injected into tissue is scarcely taken up by the blood vascular system but is retained within the tissue over a relatively extended period, and is distributed slowly into the surrounding tissues and to the regional lymph nodes. Attempts were made to use this property of the emulsion in the local administration of anticancer agents in emulsion, both in experimental animals and in man. The concentrations of bleomycin in the tumor tissue of rats were significantly higher after the intratumoral injection of the emulsion form than when the drug was administered in the aqueous solution, either systemically or intratumorally. Experimental antitumor activity against this tumor was superior after the bleomycin emulsion, as well. In the clinical trials six of eight patients with either squamous cell carcinoma of skin or local recurrence of adenocarcinoma of the breast responded favorably to this treatment.
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3/3. Ablation of neoplasia by direct current.

    The application of low-voltage direct electrical current (DEC) has been studied in animals and humans for the ablation of anal condylomata, oesophageal cancer and Kaposi's sarcoma. Twenty milliamps of DEC passed through multiple 6 cm x 1 cm, flat-plate longitudinal electrodes into the squamous mucosa of the oesophagus of healthy dogs for periods ranging from 10 min to 2 h resulted in denudation and necrosis of the oesophageal mucosa at the site of application of the current. In humans, the application of DEC to two patients with benign anal condyloma acuminata, three patients with inoperable obstructing oesophageal cancer and one patient with disseminated Kaposi sarcoma resulted in striking necrosis of tumour tissue that was confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic studies. These initial findings imply promising therapeutic potential for the use of DEC as a simple, effective, safe, low-cost alternative for ablation of neoplasia.
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