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1/282. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the fallopian tube.

    Immature teratomas of the fallopian tube are exceedingly rare with only three reported cases in the English literature. Reported here is a case of primary mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the fallopian tube composed of immature teratoma and yolk sac tumor.
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2/282. Familial ovarian germ cell cancer: report and review.

    Ovarian germ cell cancers are rare malignancies accounting for less than 5% of all ovarian cancers. We present a family in which three closely related women were diagnosed with ovarian germ cell malignancies. This family's cancer history prompted a family history investigation of women treated for ovarian germ cell malignancies in the Gynecologic-Oncology Clinic at the University of wisconsin. One of the eight patients whose family histories were reviewed had an uncle who had been diagnosed with testicular germ cell cancer. A review found six other previously reported families in which more than one relative had been diagnosed with a malignant ovarian germ cell tumor. Additionally, several cases of families with both males and females diagnosed with germ cell cancers have been documented. The low incidence of ovarian germ cell cancers suggests that multiple occurrences in the same family may not be due to chance. Rather, it is possible that a gene conferring susceptibility to ovarian germ cell cancers, and possibly to germ cell tumors in males as well, is present in at least some of these families.
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3/282. The inv(11)(p15q22) chromosome translocation of therapy-related myelodysplasia with NUP98-DDX10 and DDX10-NUP98 fusion transcripts.

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving the 11p15 or 11q22-23 bands have been reported in several types of human neoplasms including hematopoietic malignancies. The abnormalities are observed in therapy-related malignancies and less frequently in de novo myeloid malignancies. Abnormality of the MLL gene located on chromosome 11q23 has been well known in therapy-related myeloid malignancies, but it has been reported only recently that the inv(11)(p15q22) in de novo or therapy-related myeloid malignancies results in the fusion of NUP98 on chromosome 11p15 and DDX10 on chromosome 11q22. NUP98 is a nucleoporin that composes the nuclear pore complex and is the target gene in leukemia with the t(7;11)(p15;p15). The DDX10 gene encodes a putative adenosine triphosphate-dependent DEAD box rna helicase. Here we present another patient with acute myelocytic leukemia (M4) transformed from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with the inv(11) chromosome who had been treated with etoposide for a germ cell tumor. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the rna from the leukemic cells of the patient, DDX10-NUP98 and NUP98-DDX10 fusion transcripts were detected. Our case confirms that the inv(11) is a rare chromosomal translocation that is associated with therapy-related or de novo myeloid malignancy and involves NUP98 and DDX10 but not MLL. RT-PCR of the fusion transcripts might be applied to the detection of a small number of leukemic cells in the bone marrow or blood of patients in remission or in the cells harvested for autologous transplantation.
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4/282. Angiosarcoma of the testis.

    A primary angiosarcoma of the testis in a 74-year-old patient was a highly anaplastic epthelioid angiosarcoma, which was positive for endothelial markers immunohistochemically. The tumour was unrelated to testicular germ cell neoplasm; the patient had received no previous radiation or chemotherapy.
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5/282. hypercalcemia in an euthyroid patient with secondary hypoadrenalism and diabetes insipidus due to hypothalamic tumor.

    A 20-year-old Japanese man with a hypothalamic tumor (most likely germ-cell tumor) which caused secondary hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus developed hypercalcemia and acute renal failure. The serum levels of intact PTH (iPTH), PTH-related protein (PTH-rP), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin d (1,25- (OH)2 D), ACTH, cortisol, gonadotropins and testosterone were decreased, but his serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were within the normal range at admission, with depressed TSH and slightly increased thyroglobulin. The hypercalcemia was refractory to extensive hydration and calcitonin, but was ameliorated by pamidronate. After irradiation of the hypothalamic tumor, panhypopituitarism gradually developed. The patient has been normocalcemic for the last 2 years and is doing well under replacement therapy with glucocorticoid, L-thyroxine, methyltestosterone and 1-desamino D arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). As to the mechanism of euthyroidism at admission, transient destructive thyroiditis associated with hypopituitarism or delayed development of hypothyroidism following the hypoadrenalism was suggested. This is the first reported case of hypercalcemia in secondary hypoadrenalism due to hypothalamic tumor. hypercalcemia was most likely induced by increased bone resorption, which was probably elicited by the combined effects of deficient glucocorticoid and sufficient thyroid hormones in addition to hypovolemia and reduced renal calcium excretion. Furthermore, severe dehydration due to diabetes insipidus and disturbance of thirst sensation caused by the hypothalamic tumor aggravated the hypercalcemia, leading to acute renal failure.
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6/282. A frame shift mutation in the dna-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene associated with complete androgen insensitivity, persistent mullerian structures, and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the molecular, cytogenetic, immunohistochemical, and endocrinologic characteristics of a young 46,XY female with persistent mullerian structures and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Mackay Memorial Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, taiwan. PATIENT(S): A 22-year-old 46,XY female with persistent mullerian structures, a low level of serum testosterone, and no apparent adnexal masses. INTERVENTION(S): Laparoscopic removal of the dysgenetic gonads. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Detection of an androgen receptor gene mutation by a semiautomated dna sequencer, of the chromosomal complement by cytogenetic examination, of placental alkaline phosphatase activity by immunohistochemical analysis, and of neoplasms in dysgenetic gonads by histologic studies. RESULT(S): A unilateral gonadoblastoma and a contralateral gonadoblastoma associated with a dysgerminoma were found in the excised gonads. The tumors had a 46,XY complement. Placental alkaline phosphatase was present in the tumor cells. A frameshift mutation in the dna-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene was detected in the patient's blood and the tumor tissues. A five-nucleotide "AGGAA" deletion at codons 608 and 609 of the androgen receptor gene resulted in a missing arginine and lysine as well as a frameshift that introduced a stop codon 12 amino acid downstream from the mutation. CONCLUSION(S): Molecular genetic analysis of the androgen receptor gene aids in the rapid diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity irrespective of atypical clinical phenotypes and endocrinologic parameters.
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7/282. Microcystic meningioma arising in a mixed germ cell tumor of the testis: a case report.

    We report a case of a microcystic variant of meningioma arising in a mixed germ cell tumor of the testis composed predominantly of mature and immature teratoma with elements of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. We believe this is the first such case of a meningioma arising in a teratoma within a gonadal or extragonadal site. The meningiomatous component showed positive immunohistochemical staining for epithelial membrane antigen and a lack of staining for cytokeratin, factor viii, CD31, and alpha-fetoprotein. Recognition of a non-germ cell tumor arising in the setting of a teratoma in the testis may be prognostically important depending on the nature of the non-germ cell component and whether it has spread beyond the testis.
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8/282. Primary testicular seminoma in a patient with a history of extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma.

    Extragonadal germ cell carcinoma represents between 3% and 5% of all germ cell carcinomas. A metachronous primary germ cell carcinoma is exceedingly rare in these patients. We report the eighth case, which occurred in a 29-year-old man who presented with testicular seminoma 7 years after his initial presentation with extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma. The seven other patients also presented with extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma, followed subsequently by testicular seminoma in 6 patients and non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma in the seventh. The mean time to presentation was 8 years. Although rare, this case emphasizes the need for long-term surveillance, including testicular evaluation of patients with a history of extragonadal germ cell carcinoma.
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9/282. radiation-induced brain calcification: paradoxical high signal intensity in T1-weighted MR images.

    BACKGROUND: Irradiation to the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood is known to induce cerebral calcification after a latent period. Calcification has been generally found to show nil or a reduction in signal intensity in magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, we have studied three patients with radiation-induced brain calcification, who manifested increased signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images. METHOD: Three girls had each been diagnosed as having a suprasellar germ cell tumour and were treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy in their childhood. In one case, chemotherapy was given prior to the CNS irradiation. FINDINGS: All three patients survived their disease, and a follow-up CT scan revealed calcification in the brain, which has shown an increased signal intensity in the T1-weighted images of MR. INTERPRETATION: Cerebral calcification may be presented as a high signal intensity in the T1-weighted MR images. This may be explained by a surface-relaxation effect by the calcium salt particle, precipitated in the brain due to radiation-induced mineralising microangiopathy.
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10/282. Ovarian germ cell neoplasm in pregnancy.

    Ovarian germ cell neoplasm in pregnancy, with variable outcomes after debulking surgery is described.
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