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1/69. Microcystic meningioma arising in a mixed germ cell tumor of the testis: a case report.

    We report a case of a microcystic variant of meningioma arising in a mixed germ cell tumor of the testis composed predominantly of mature and immature teratoma with elements of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. We believe this is the first such case of a meningioma arising in a teratoma within a gonadal or extragonadal site. The meningiomatous component showed positive immunohistochemical staining for epithelial membrane antigen and a lack of staining for cytokeratin, factor viii, CD31, and alpha-fetoprotein. Recognition of a non-germ cell tumor arising in the setting of a teratoma in the testis may be prognostically important depending on the nature of the non-germ cell component and whether it has spread beyond the testis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = seminoma
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2/69. Primary testicular seminoma in a patient with a history of extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma.

    Extragonadal germ cell carcinoma represents between 3% and 5% of all germ cell carcinomas. A metachronous primary germ cell carcinoma is exceedingly rare in these patients. We report the eighth case, which occurred in a 29-year-old man who presented with testicular seminoma 7 years after his initial presentation with extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma. The seven other patients also presented with extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma, followed subsequently by testicular seminoma in 6 patients and non-seminomatous germ cell carcinoma in the seventh. The mean time to presentation was 8 years. Although rare, this case emphasizes the need for long-term surveillance, including testicular evaluation of patients with a history of extragonadal germ cell carcinoma.
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ranking = 13
keywords = seminoma
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3/69. Lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) curability and prediction of clinical course after treatment of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.

    OBJECTIVE: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an important tumor marker for non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) that greatly affects diagnosis and the evaluations of therapy and therapeutic policy. However, it is sometimes very difficult to make the distinction between tumors and falsely elevated AFP levels due to benign liver disease. We assessed the usefulness of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%), which has been reported to be superior to total AFP in both sensitivity and specificity in hepatocellular carcinomas, for the evaluation of predictions of clinical courses after the treatment of NSGCTs. methods: Frozen sera of 25 tumor-bearing patients with testicular cancers whose AFP levels were 5.0 ng/ml or higher were used. The total AFP levels and the ratio of L3 fraction to total AFP (AFP-L3%) were measured by liquid-phase binding assay (LBA). RESULTS: The total AFP levels were 6.3-14 907 ng/ml (median: 105.9 ng/ml). The median AFP-L3% was 69.9% (range;: 1.1-88.1%). Except for one patient, 24 patients (96.0%) with evident disease showed high levels of AFP-L3% of >50%, regardless of their total AFP levels. In nine patients whose sera were sequentially measured, AFP-L3% was considered highly useful for the detection of residual tumors (n = 2) and recurrence (n = 1) and for the exclusion of false-positive cases (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: When the total AFP level increases slightly (e.g. to 5-20 ng/ml), a measurement of AFP-L3% may provide additional useful information for monitoring NSGCT patients and in distinguishing falsely elevated AFP.
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ranking = 5
keywords = seminoma
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4/69. Electron microscopy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy from extragonadal germ cell tumors.

    We describe five cases of extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT) diagnosed by the electron microscope (EM) on cytological material. The clinical diagnosis was incorrect in all cases and EGCT was suspected in two cases; cytological diagnosis by light microscopy confirmed the presence of malignant tumor cells, but did not identify the cytotype/s correctly except in one case. ultrasonography, laparoscopy, and autopsy (in case 3) excluded a primitive germ cell tumor (GCT). histology confirmed the EM diagnosis in all cases. EM, even of scanty or necrotic cytological material, is particularly useful for mediastinal and retroperitoneal masses. In case of EGCT, EM can identify the different cytotypes and the different ultrastructural subcellular cytotypes and demonstrates a close relation between seminomatous and nonseminomatous GCT, which could influence their classification and prognosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = seminoma
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5/69. Testicular carcinoma with inferior vena cava thrombosis extending into the right atrium treated with chemotherapy and anticoagulation.

    A 34-year-old male with pulmonary emboli and thrombosis of the inferior vena cava extending into the right atrium was found at presentation to have a mixed seminoma and embryonal cell testicular carcinoma with high-volume retroperitoneal disease and visceral metastases. The patient was free of disease 19 months after treatment with combination chemotherapy and anticoagulation followed by resection of the residual mass. We could not find any previous report of a patient with bulky retroperitoneal disease and vena cava thrombosis successfully treated with chemotherapy without vena cava resection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = seminoma
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6/69. Microinvasive germ cell neoplasia of the testis.

    BACKGROUND. The term microinvasive germ cell neoplasia denotes the presence of neoplastic germ cells in the tubuli and interstitium of the testis, unaccompanied by clinically detectable tumor. methods. Testicular biopsy specimens from three patients (age range, 26-38 years) without clinical evidence of tumor showed microinvasive germ cell neoplasia. The indications for biopsy were gynecomastia and testicular atrophy in Patient 1, infertility in Patient 2, and nonseminomatous cancer in the contralateral testicle in Patient 3. RESULTS. In all three cases, orchiectomy specimens disclosed multifocal intratubular and extratubular growth of neoplastic germ cells, occasionally confluent in seminoma-like infiltrates. In Cases 1 and 2, no malignant cells were found at biopsy of the contralateral testis. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to intratubular (in situ) germ cell neoplasia, microinvasion constitutes a definitive malignancy and the starting point of differentiation into seminoma or nonseminomatous tumor. Inguinal orchiectomy is recommended as primary therapy. The necessity of complementary therapy is an issue that must be investigated.
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ranking = 4
keywords = seminoma
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7/69. A case of simultaneous bilateral nonseminomatous testicular tumors in persistent mullerian duct syndrome.

    Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is characteristically associated with unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism. Like other undescended testes, these gonads are at an increased risk of malignant transformation. We report a case of synchronous bilateral mixed germ cell tumors in the cryptorchid testes of a patient with the persistent mullerian duct syndrome.
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ranking = 4
keywords = seminoma
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8/69. prostate carcinoma presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules in an asymptomatic patient with a history of testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.

    prostate carcinoma presenting initially as multiple pulmonary nodules in an asymptomatic patient without previous prostate carcinoma is unusual. Whether the incidence of prostate carcinoma is significantly increased in patients treated previously for germ cell tumors is unclear. We report such a patient, who responded to combination androgen blockade therapy.
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ranking = 4
keywords = seminoma
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9/69. Familial primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors.

    In this article, we describe the case of 4 brothers, 2 of which had primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (PMNSGCT), while the other 2 had benign mediastinal disease. We discuss the relationship between these diseases of the mediastinum and the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, we suggest that a genetic predisposition for germ-cell tumors (GCT) may be involved since the parents were relatives.
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ranking = 5
keywords = seminoma
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10/69. Intraluminal tumour thrombus of a mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of testis within the inferior vena cava.

    BACKGROUND: Intracaval tumour thrombus developed per continuitatem from a primary testicular tumour is rare. CASE REPORT: A patient with metastatic mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is presented. He belonged to the intermediate-risk group according to the IGCCCG (International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group) classification. The 26-year-old man underwent right inguinal orchiectomy. Computed tomography revealed the tumour thrombus as filling defect in the IVC extending nearly to the right renal vein. Duplex sonography detected a partial thrombosis of the IVC. Combination chemotherapy led to regression of pulmonal metastases and the intraluminal tumour thrombus. 5 months later, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy was performed and the intraluminal thrombus was extracted by cavotomy. The thrombus originated from the ostium of the right testicularis vein in the IVC. Histological examination revealed no vital tumour tissue. CONCLUSION: In patients with testicular cancer information about pathological processes of the IVC is important for therapeutic management. Testicular tumours seldom extend up the IVC.
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ranking = 5
keywords = seminoma
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