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1/48. p53 and p16INK4A mutations during the progression of glomus tumor.

    Glomus tumors are significantly rare tumors of carotid body. The great majority of these tumors are benign in character. Here we present two brothers with hereditary glomus jugulare tumor who had consanguineous parents. radiotherapy was applied approximately 8 and 10 years ago for treatment in both cases. Eight years later, one of these cases came to our notice due to relapse. The mutation pattern of p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A and p15NK4B genes which have roles in the cell cycle, was analyzed in tumor samples obtained from the two affected cases in the initial phase and from one of these cases at relapse. The DNA sample obtained from the case in initial diagnosis phase revealed no p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A or p15INK4B mutation. He is still in remission phase. Despite the lack of p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A and p15INK4B mutation at initial diagnosis the tumor DNA of the other case in relapse revealed p53 codon 243 (ATG-->ATC; met-->ile) and p16 codon 97 (GAC-->AAC; asp-->asn) missense point mutations. No loss of heterozygosity in p53 and p16INK4A was observed by microsatellite analysis of tumoral tissues in these cases. P53 and p16INK4A mutations observed in relapse phase were in conserved regions of both genes. No previous reports have been published with these mutations in glomus tumor during progression. The mutation observed in this case may due to radiotherapy. In spite of this possibility, the missense point mutations in conserved region of p53 and p16INK4A genes may indicate the role of p53 and p16INK4A in tumor progression of glomus tumors.
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2/48. A case of multiple sebaceous epithelioma: analysis of microsatellite instability.

    Sebaceous gland tumor is a rare disease that is a sign of muir-torre syndrome, an autosomal, dominantly inherited genodermatosis characterized by the presence of at least one sebaceous gland tumor and a minimum of one internal malignancy. Recent studies have indicated that defective dna mismatch repair occurs in muir-torre syndrome. Cutaneous lesions may occur before diagnosis of the internal cancer. We describe a 64-year-old male patient with multiple sebaceous epitheliomas with no evident internal malignancy. microsatellite instability, determined by examining dinucleotide CA repeats at the microsatellite loci, was observed in DNA from one sebaceous epithelioma but not from the other two sebaceous epitheliomas or from one basal cell epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, suggesting that this condition is unlikely to be due to germ-line mutation of mismatch repair genes.
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3/48. dna mismatch repair deficiency in curatively resected sextuple primary cancers in different organs: a molecular case report.

    A male patient synchronously or metachronously underwent six curative resections after diagnoses of cancers in the rectum, urinary bladder, stomach, colon, liver and lung. Five cancers, excluding early colon cancer, were analyzed for instability in seven microsatellite markers and in transforming growth factor beta type II receptor, insulin-like growth factor ii receptor and BAX. All analyzed cancers had replication errors and instability in at least one target gene. These results suggest that abnormal dna mismatch repair system plays a major role in the occurrence of multiple primary cancers in this case.
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4/48. Combined nevi of the conjunctiva.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and histologic features of combined nevi of the conjunctiva, a type of nevus that is not uncommon in the skin but rarely has been reported in the conjunctiva. methods: Conjunctival nevi and melanomas in the files of the University of california at san francisco eye pathology Laboratory from 1984 to 1999 were reviewed for the presence of features of both standard nevocytic nevi and blue nevi. Clinical histories and, when available, clinical photographs were obtained. RESULTS: Thirty combined nevi were discovered between 1984 and 1999. One case before 1984 had been incorrectly diagnosed as a junctional nevus. The dendritic and spindle-shaped blue nevus cells had been overlooked because they were not recognized as distinct from the standard nevocytic nevus cells. The recognition of blue as well as a brown color, a deep as well as a superficial component in the lesion, or a history of pigmentation since birth may help to establish the correct clinical diagnosis and prevent an unnecessarily deep surgical resection. Although growth of the lesion or "satellites" in some may favor a clinical diagnosis of melanoma, no lesions in this series were malignant. CONCLUSION: Despite a paucity of reports of combined nevi of the conjunctiva in the medical literature, this type of nevus, a combination of a nevocytic and a blue nevus, is common and has been overlooked in the past.
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5/48. The use of microsatellite instability in the distinction between synchronous endometrial and colonic adenocarcinomas.

    The association of endometrial carcinoma with other gynecologic neoplasms, especially ovarian and fallopian tube carcinoma, has been well documented and is usually interpreted as a result of a field defect. Sporadic synchronous primary carcinomas occurring in the endometrium and colon are extremely rare, especially in the absence of the familial genetic abnormalities seen in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) syndrome, and may present a diagnostic dilemma. Two cases of synchronous adenocarcinomas of the endometrium and colon were studied for genetic abnormalities and differences to test for the presence of two primary tumors. Primary tumors, metastases, and normal tissues were microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. PCR amplification was performed for microsatellite DNA markers on chromosome 17q and 11q13. The colonic tumors were moderately and poorly differentiated, invasive, nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, whereas one uterine tumor was endometrioid adenocarcinoma and the other was papillary serous carcinoma. Although microsatellite instability, as evidenced by changes in the lengths of the amplified PCR products, was detected at 17q and 11q13 loci in the uterine and colonic neoplasms, the patterns of instability differed between the two primary tumor sites. Moreover, the lymph node metastasis in one colonic tumor had genetic alterations that differed from that of the primary tumor. In both patients, the molecular studies suggested the presence of two synchronous primary tumors. Molecular techniques may assist in distinguishing two separate primaries by determining the contraction and expansion of microsatellite regions in DNA obtained by microdissection from the primary tumors and associated metastases.
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6/48. Molecular evidence of field cancerization in a patient with 7 tumors of the aerodigestive tract.

    Exposure of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract to carcinogens can induce genetic changes resulting in various independent clones of neoplastic growth, a concept defined as "field cancerization." The risk of developing multiple tumors in this compartment of the body is well established. We studied 6 distinct tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract of a single patient for loss of heterozygosity (LOH), microsatellite instability (MSI), p53 mutations, and K-ras codon 12 point mutations. We detected a unique pattern of LOH and p53 mutations in all 6 tumors. No tumor showed a K-ras mutation or MSI. The results support the mechanism of "field cancerization" and illustrate the potential power of molecular techniques to elucidate pathogenesis.
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7/48. Metachronous carcinoma of the vulva and fallopian tube.

    BACKGROUND: Metachronous carcinoma of the vulva and fallopian tube is an unusual co-occurrence of gynecological malignancies. A report of such a case that developed and recurred over a 7-year period is presented. CASE: A 53-year-old G3P3 female presented with a verrucous carcinoma of the vulva and a serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the left fallopian tube metachronously. To investigate a possible association between the co-occurrence of the rare neoplasms and factors associated with multiple gynecological malignancies, we analyzed the status of human papillomavirus infection and dna mismatch repair deficiency as indicated by microsatellite instability. All samples analyzed were negative for these factors. CONCLUSION: The present results support the possibility that metachronous carcinomas of the vulva and fallopian tube involve unknown etiological factors or arise independently.
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8/48. Genetic analysis of multiple sporadic colon carcinomas from a single patient.

    At least two separate genetic pathways of carcinogenesis in sporadic colon cancer involving the accumulation of mutations at various genetic loci have been described. About 15% of sporadic colorectal carcinomas arise via a mechanism associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutations in transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFbetaRII), insulin-like growth factor ii receptor (IGFIIR) and BAX, whilst the remaining 85% are associated with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangements. An 81-year-old woman had a sigmoid colon carcinoma resected and 18 months later developed two additional carcinomas of the caecum and transverse colon. To investigate whether there was a common genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis for the three lesions, MSI status was assessed, TGFbetaRII, IGFIIR and BAX were analysed for mutations and protein expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and p53 were studied using immunohistochemistry. The caecal and transverse colonic carcinomas were both MSI positive but different mutations were identified in each lesion. No genetic abnormalities were identified in the sigmoid colonic carcinoma. This suggests that each carcinoma arose via a separate genetic mechanism of carcinogenesis.
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9/48. Multiple tumors and a novel E2F-4 mutation. A case report.

    Defects in the DNA mismatch-repair are known to cause microsatellite instability (MSI) in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported that the E2F-4 gene, which encodes an important transcription factor in cell cycle control, had frequent tumor-specific mutations at the trinucleotide coding region microsatellite (CAG)n in a subset of human sporadic CRC with MSI. We report a 65-year-old man with triple tumors in the abdomen, including colon cancer, stomach cancer, and lipoma of the retroperitoneum, with the analysis of E2F-4 mutation. We report the first case of colon cancer with a homozygous E2F-4 mutation along with a detailed analysis of other cancer related genes as well as a prognosis.
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10/48. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer associated with disseminated superficial porokeratosis. microsatellite instability in skin tumours.

    A 73-year-old man presented with typical lesions of disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSP) and multiple seborrhoeic keratoses on his face, trunk and extremities, and later developed a keratoacanthoma on his lip. He belonged to a cancer-prone pedigree susceptible to colonic, uterine and other internal cancers, and had a personal history of early gastric cancer and advanced adenocarcinoma of the descending colon without adenomatous polyps at age 59 years. polymerase chain reaction amplification of skin samples for seven separate microsatellite polymorphisms revealed microsatellite instability (MSI) at multiple loci in five of six seborrhoeic keratoses and the keratoacanthoma, strongly suggesting underlying defects in dna mismatch repair. Although no germline mutations in two mismatch repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1 were found, our patient was recognized as having hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) based on the family history and the findings of the microsatellite analysis of skin tumours. This confirmed the usefulness of detection of MSI in prevalent and readily accessible skin lesions, including non-sebaceous non-dysplastic tumours such as seborrhoeic keratosis in the screening of HNPCC families. Although DSP may also be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, this particular skin disease appeared to be sporadic in our patient and, to our knowledge, no association of DSP or other forms of porokeratosis with HNPCC has previously been reported. In contrast to the seborrhoeic keratoses and keratoacanthoma, no MSI was observed in two samples from DSP lesional epidermis examined.
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