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1/109. Composite ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor.

    Both ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors are well-recognized glial-neuronal neoplasms associated with chronic epilepsy and cortical dysplasia (neuronal migration abnormalities). The exact relationship between these 2 glial-neuronal tumors continues to be debated. This article reports a case of a composite ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor occurring in a 36-year-old woman in the left temporal lobe region. The resection histologically demonstrated distinct areas of ganglioglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. A focal area of cortical dysplasia is also identified. The MIB-1 labeling indexes in both components were low (<1% of tumor cell nuclei). The coexistence of these 2 lesions and cortical dysplasia suggest a possible etiologic relationship between these 2 tumors. ( info)

2/109. Successful therapy in a child with a congenital peripheral medulloepithelioma and disruption of hindquarter development.

    PURPOSE: Medulloepithelioma is an embryonal multipotential neuroepithelial tumor with a striking potential for divergent differentiation. It is usually intraocular or intracerebral and associated with a good prognosis only if completely surgically excised. Data regarding therapy in children with incompletely resected tumors are limited. PATIENT AND methods: A girl was born with a large, peripheral, congenital medulloepithelioma associated with complete absence of the left hindquarter and anus. Plain film, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete absence of the left kidney and hemipelvis. A subtotal resection of the mass and reconstruction of the tumor-related anatomical defects were performed. RESULTS: Pathologic examination showed neuroglia and pseudostratified neuroectoderm diagnostic of medulloepithelioma. She was treated with multiagent chemotherapy including vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, carboplatin, and etoposide. She is now 50 months of age and developing normally without recurrent disease. CONCLUSIONS: A child with an incompletely resected congenital peripheral medulloepithelioma who has experienced long-term disease-free survival after treatment with chemotherapy is described. This report supports a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of children with peripheral medulloepithelioma. ( info)

3/109. A case of medulloepithelioma of the left eye.

    The case of a 12 year old male patient with a diagnosis of medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body is reported. The difficulties in reaching diagnosis and management are discussed. The importance of keeping such a rare disease in mind is stressed. ( info)

4/109. Spontaneous intralesional haemorrhage in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours: a series of five cases.

    Five patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) showing extensive secondary haemorrhage, a finding not previously associated with these neoplasms, are described. The clinical presentations, neuroimaging findings, and histopathological features of these patients are reviewed. One patient, a previously asymptomatic 12 year old girl, presented with an acute intracerebral haemorrhage into a DNT. A further four young adults with histories of intractable partial and generalised seizures dating from childhood showed significant chronic haemorrhages within DNT, the MRI appearances in one patient giving a false impression of a cavernoma. Histopathology disclosed vascular abnormalities within these tumours which, together with other factors discussed, may have predisposed these tumours to haemorrhage. ( info)

5/109. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. A case report.

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) is a rare, benign tumor encountered in the cortex. It is characterized by the presence of cells of different histogenesis. Due to its mixed nature (glial-neuronal), WHO histological classification of brain tumors included it into the group of neuronal and glial-neuronal mixed tumors. Case of tumor in a 19-year-old woman experiencing for three years seizure of temporal lobe epilepsy is presented. A cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed "pseudocystic" tumor in temporal lobe. Histological and immunocytochemical examinations of the tumor fragment removed during surgery revealed large numbers of neuronalglial nodules occurring in the cerebral cortex. Columns of glial-neuronal structures crossing parallely to the cortex surface, surrounded by oligodendrocyte-like cells (OLC) were a characteristic feature of the tumor texture. In the tumor interstitium, "floating" maturated, dysplastic-free ganglionic cells were visible in numerous bright spaces. In addition, numerous lobuliform--structured areas consisted of oligodendrocyte-like cells. Oligodendrocyte-like cells were characterized by positive immunoreaction to the presence of S-100 protein and synaptophysin. Basing on clinical manifestation and histopathological findings dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor was diagnosed. ( info)

6/109. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT): an ultrastructural study of six cases.

    We report six cases od DNT with a detailed ultrastructural characteristics. The patient age ranged from 7 to 16 years (mean 12), the location was temporal in three cases and frontal, temporooccipital and parietooccipital in each of one remaining cases. The predominant clinical feature in each case was history of episodes of intractable seizures. Histopathologically, the neoplasms were multinodular, each nodule was well-circumscribed and was composed of glioneuronal elements embedded in the variable amount of myxoid matrix. The oligodendroglial-like cells (OLC) predominated in the nodules with some accompanying mature neurons. The nodules were frequently surrounded by small calcifications which could be found also within the tumors. OLCs were immunoreactive for S-100 protein and neurons had the expression of synaptophysin and neurofilament proteins. Ultrastructurally, each tumor consisted of three major elements: neoplastic cells (OLC), elongated processes forming neuropil-like structure and expanded "mucoid" extracellular space: the latter gave an impression of cellular elements floating within it. Neoplastic cells had round, oval or elongated nuclei, no discernible nucleoli and a relatively narrow rim of the cytoplasm. Some nuclei were irregular and invaginated and pseudoinclusions were observed; a part of cytoplasm sequestered within pseudoinclusions often appeared degenerated with large blabs and electron-lucent vesicles, some of these contained in turn semicircular profiles of unknown significance. The second element consisted of innumerable cellular processes. Some of these were elongated and formed stacks connected by symmetrical symmetric or asymmetric adhesive plaque junctions. The others had shorter "neck" containing microtubules, these extended into bullous extensions. Dense-cored vesicles were occasionally observed, in both cytoplasm of neoplastic cells and within processes. In one cell, cross-sectioned annulate lamellae were found. In cytoplasm of a few cells, unusual inclusions reminiscent ribosome-lamellae complexes were observed. These were cylindrical resembling "laboratory tubes" with a cone-like endings. At higher power, walls of the "tubes" resolved into layered structures composed of several laminae; between laminae, ribosome-like structures were visible. ( info)

7/109. Astroblastoma: ultrastructural observations on a case of high-grade type.

    An astroblastoma of high-grade type arising in the brain of a 3-year-old child is reported. The first description of the ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic findings in this rare tumor variant are presented. ( info)

8/109. Serial positron emission tomography (PET) in gliomatosis cerebri treated with radiotherapy: a case report.

    Results of serial positron emission tomography (PET) in a biopsy-proven case of gliomatosis cerebri (GC) are reported. Computed tomography (CT) with and without contrast failed to detect focal abnormalities, but magnetic resonance (MR) revealed iso-intensity or low-intensity lesions in T1-weighted images and high-intensity lesions in T2-weighted images. Lesions were seen in the left thalamus, right temporal lobe and claustrum, and pons. radiotherapy remarkably improved clinical and imaging findings. Both before and shortly after radiotherapy, 11C-methionine PET images showed hypermetabolism while 15O-water PET images showed a marked increase in cerebral blood flow in GC lesions. However, 6 months later PET images had remarkably improved, appearing nearly normal. ( info)

9/109. MR spectroscopy in gliomatosis cerebri.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri with MR imaging is known to be difficult. We report on the value of MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis, grading, and biopsy planing in eight patients with histopathologically proved gliomatosis cerebri. methods: patients underwent MR imaging and MR spectroscopy (single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy [PRESS] at 1500/135, and chemical-shift imaging [CSI] PRESS at 1500/135) before open (n = 4) or stereotactic (n = 4) biopsy. In six patients who underwent CSI, biopsy samples were taken from regions of maximally elevated levels of choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA). RESULTS: All patients showed elevated Cho/creatine (Cr) and Cho/NAA levels as well as varying degrees of decreased NAA/Cr ratios, which were most pronounced in the anaplastic lesions. In low-grade lesions, there was a maximum Cho/NAA ratio of 1.3, whereas in anaplastic tumors, the maximum Cho/NAA level was at least 2.5. Spectra in two patients with grade III lesions revealed a lactate peak; lactate and lipid signals were seen in two patients with grade IV lesions. biopsy specimens from regions with maximally elevated levels of Cho/NAA showed dense infiltration of tumor cells. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy might be used to classify gliomatosis cerebri as a stable or a progressive disease indicating its potential therapeutic relevance. ( info)

10/109. Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report.

    A 29-year-old man presented in 1984 with a recent onset of partial seizures marked by speech arrest. electroencephalography identified a left frontotemporal dysrhythmia. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning revealed a superficial hypodense nonenhancing lesion in the midleft frontal convexity, with some remodeling of the overlying skull. The patient was transferred to the london health Sciences Centre for subtotal resection of what was diagnosed as a "fibrillary astrocytoma (microcystic)." He received no chemotherapy or radiation therapy and remained well for 11 years. The patient presented again in late 1995 with progressive seizure activity. Both CT and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a recurrent enhancing partly cystic lesion. A Grade IV astrocytoma was resected, and within the malignant tumor was a superficial area reminiscent of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Data on the lesion that had been resected in 1984 were reviewed, and in retrospect the lesion was identified as a DNT of the complex form. It was bordered by cortical dysplasia and contained glial nodules, in addition to the specific glioneuronal element. The glial nodules were significant for moderate pleomorphism and rare mitotic figures. The Ki67 labeling index averaged 0.3% in the glial nodules and up to 4% focally. cells were rarely Ki67 positive within the glioneuronal component. This case is the first documented example of malignant transformation of a DNT. It serves as a warning of the potential for malignant transformation in this entity, which has been traditionally accepted as benign. This warning may be especially warranted when confronted with complex forms of DNT. The completeness of resection in the benign state is of paramount importance. ( info)
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