Cases reported "Neoplasms, Second Primary"

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1/65. Sternothoracotomy for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and left upper lobectomy in a patient with low-lying tracheostoma.

    A 64-year-old man had a low-lying tracheostoma and presented with unstable angina and a mass in the pulmonary left upper lobe. Simultaneous coronary revascularization and resection of the lung neoplasm were completed through a sternothoracotomy (clam-shell) incision. The advantages of this approach include excellent exposure to the mediastinum and the lung fields, and the option of using both internal thoracic arteries for bypass grafting.
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2/65. Delayed massive hemoptysis after expandable bronchial stent placement.

    patients with lung cancer often develop airway obstruction that necessitates palliative bronchoscopic interventions. Expandable metal stents are increasingly used for this indication. We report a case of fatal massive hemoptysis that occurred 1 week after uneventful bronchial stent placement. Previous treatment with external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy probably contributed to pulmonary artery-bronchial fistulization in this patient. This complication should be kept in mind when considering expandable airway stent insertion in heavily pretreated lung cancer patients.
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3/65. glioblastoma multiforme in a mature ovarian teratoma with recurring brain tumours.

    AIMS: We report a case study to highlight the occurrence of glioblastoma multiforme in an ovarian teratoma. methods AND RESULTS: A 10-year-old girl presented with a left frontal lobe primitive neuroectodermal tumour which was successfully treated. After 6 uneventful years, she developed glioblastoma multiforme located posterior to the site of the initial tumour. Six years later, she presented with a mature cystic teratoma containing glioblastoma multiforme. CONCLUSIONS: glioblastoma in an ovarian teratoma is an exceptional event, which might have an initial clinical presentation as a metastatic brain tumour. Alternatively, recurring glial tumours may occur in a genetically predisposed person; the role of radiation and chemotherapy in this context remains to be elucidated.
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4/65. Comparative microsatellite analysis in discerning origin of disseminated tumor: the case of a patient with malignant ascites and a history of multiple tumors.

    The origin of metastatic carcinoma is now always easily resolved on the basis of conventional dinical and pathological parameters, particularly in patients with more than 1 primary tumor. When 1 of the tumors is a renal cell carcinoma, the clinical picture is further confounded by the tendency of these tumors to be locally silent, to metastasize to unusual sites, and to disseminate long after removal of the primary tumor. We compared tumors for loss (ie, deletion) of loci on chromosomal arms 3p, 5q, 11q, and 18q in a patient with a malignant ascites fluid, a remote history of renal and colonic neoplasms, and a strong clinical suspicion of disseminated gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. dna from microdissected tumors and normal tissues was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite analysis. Even though the clinical picture suggested a gastrointestinal origin, comparison of genetic alterations clearly showed that the malignant ascites represented recurrence of the renal cell carcinoma. The malignant ascites and the primary renal cell carcinoma showed identical patterns of allelic loss at all loci tested. In contrast, the malignant ascites and colonic adenoma showed discordant patterns of allelic loss. Comparative microsatellite analysis provides a rapid genetic approach for discerning the origin of metastatic tumor spread. This may be a useful diagnostic adjunct when tumor origin is not clear on clinical or morphological grounds. In some instances, it may even provide a reasonable alternative to an extensive and costly conventional work-up.
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5/65. Third malignancy after treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

    We present a case of 36-year-old man who was treated for IIB supradiaphragmatic lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease in 1972 (at the age of 11). The patient remained relapse-free after combined radiotherapy (irradiation of the right supraclavicular field) and chemotherapy (six MOPP cycles) and a 3-year supporting chemotherapy (Velbe). In 1993 he underwent spinal cord surgery for a right-sided "hour glass" schwannoma at C4-5 level. In 1996 a large formation histologically verified as "chondrosarcoma" occurred in the right supraclavicular and axillary regions. The pathogenesis of the second and third malignancies may be attributed to the histologic pattern of HD with long-term survival and increased cumulative risk, non-alternating MOPP courses and continued supporting therapy and radiotherapy given to the involved fields.
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6/65. Postirradiation sarcoma after external beam radiation therapy for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: report of three cases.

    We report 3 cases of postirradiation sarcoma that arose in the pelvis 8, 15, and 16 years after completion of external beam radiation therapy (RT) for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Although such cases must be regarded as extremely rare, postirradiation sarcoma should be considered as a potential cause of pelvic pain developing after RT.
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7/65. Morphological and cytogenetic changes in therapy-related leukemia developed in a t(8;21)-acute myeloid leukemia (M2) patient: sequential cytogenetic and molecular analyses.

    A patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M2 with t(8;21)(q22;q22) achieved complete remission with remission-induction chemotherapy followed by consolidation and intensification chemotherapies. T(8;21)(q22;q22) disappeared, but chimeric AML1/MTG8 was continuously detected in bone marrow cells. Following the development of therapy-related leukemia after 1 year, evolution of therapy-related AML-M4 with t(11;17)(q23;q25) and the rearrangement of the MLL gene were observed, while AML/MTG8 disappeared. After reinduction and following intermittent chemotherapies, a subsequent alternative transformation to AML-M2 occurred after detection of t(3;21)(q21;q22), with a break in the AML1 gene shown by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. This leukemia transformed to AML-M4 after t(9;22)(q34;q11), with a minor BCR/ABL rearrangement, and then finally to AML-M2. This therapy-related leukemia was resistant to chemotherapy. These findings indicate that alterations in cytogenetic and molecular events caused by chemotherapeutic agents contribute to the sequential evolution of new leukemic clones with different morphology.
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8/65. Rotationplasty as a salvage procedure in revision of tumor endoprosthesis of the distal femur--a report of two cases.

    We performed two rotationplasties (type A1 and A2) as salvage procedures in cases of custom-made endoprosthetic replacements of the distal femur and knee joint. The patients suffered from malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors of the knee, respectively. One of them developed chronic osteomyelitis around both stems of the prosthesis, and three local revisions turned out to be ineffective. The other patient, suffering from parossal osteosarcoma of the distal femur, developed a local recurrence following endoprosthetic reconstruction. The functional abilities following the operation of these two patients suggested that rotationplasty was a viable alternative to above-the-knee amputation in failed or severely complicated total arthroplasty of the knee with massive bone loss.
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9/65. t(3;11) translocation in treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia fuses MLL with the GMPS (GUANOSINE 5' MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE) gene.

    The partner gene of MLL was identified in a patient with treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia in which the karyotype suggested t(3;11)(q25;q23). Prior therapy included the dna topoisomerase ii inhibitors, teniposide and doxorubicin. Southern blot analysis indicated that the MLL gene was involved in the translocation. cDNA panhandle polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used, which does not require partner gene-specific primers, to identify the chimeric transcript. Reverse-transcription of first-strand cDNAs with oligonucleotides containing known MLL sequence at the 5' ends and random hexamers at the 3' ends generated templates with an intra-strand loop for PCR. In-frame fusions of either MLL exon 7 or exon 8 with the GMPS (GUANOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE) gene from chromosome band 3q24 were detected. The fusion transcript was alternatively spliced. guanosine monophosphate synthetase is essential for de novo purine synthesis. GMPS is the first partner gene of MLL on chromosome 3q and the first gene of this type in leukemia-associated translocations. (blood. 2000;96:4360-4362)
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10/65. Supratentorial hemangioblastoma in a patient with breast cancer. A case report.

    patients with breast cancer may develop cerebral metastasis. Radio- and chemotherapy are advocated as an alternative to surgery in such patients. A woman operated on for breast cancer 2 years earlier developed a cerebral lesion. A definite preoperative diagnosis of the lesion was not possible on the basis of CT and MRI findings. The lesion proved to be a supratentorial hemangioblastoma. Neurosurgical treatment is recommended for patients with breast cancer who present a cerebral lesion, since a correct diagnosis may only be possible in the operating theater.
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