Cases reported "Neoplasms, Second Primary"

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1/81. Synovial sarcoma in the parapharyngeal space: case report and review of the literature.

    We encountered a rare case of synovial sarcoma in the parapharynx of a 47-year-old Japanese man. This patient presented with an enlarging tumor in the right side of his neck that had grown progressively over a 4-week period. Radiological examinations revealed that the tumor arose from the parapharyngeal space. The tumor could not be completely removed at surgery. Metastasis to the lumbar vertebra was detected postoperatively. The patient underwent three courses of chemotherapy and the delivery of palliative radiation to the lumbar vertebra without success. The patient died of lung metastasis 7 months after surgery.
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2/81. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the mandibule.

    A case of metastatic papillary carcinoma to the mandible is presented. Though relatively rare, metastatic tumours of the mandible should be included in the differential diagnosis of the tumours in the parotid region. For the primary site; being in the cervicofacial region, the thyroid gland must be considered by the head and neck surgeon.
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3/81. Anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a patient with chronic cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

    We describe an allogeneic bone marrow (BM) recipient who developed aggressive, metastasizing squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the skin, and discuss possible risk factors in the development of this secondary solid tumor. The patient had been treated with cyclosporine (CsA), methyl-prednisolone and thalidomide for 3 years because of extensive de novo chronic cutaneous GVHD occurring 1 year after BMT. Ten years after BMT a locally invasive and metastasizing SCC occurred on the patient's neck, and diagnosis was confirmed by H&E histopathology and cytokeratin-immunohistochemistry. Analysis of genomic dna did not reveal p53 mutations nor were HPV sequences detectable. risk factors included conditioning for BMT with total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide (Cy), immunosuppressive treatment for GVHD, and extensive exposure to UV radiation before and after BMT. Despite surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) the patient died 1 year after the diagnosis of SCC.
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4/81. Clinical delivery of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy for relapsed or second-primary head and neck cancer using a multileaf collimator with dynamic control.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concave dose distributions generated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were applied to re-irradiate three patients with pharyngeal cancer. patients, MATERIALS AND methods: Conventional radiotherapy for oropharyngeal (patients 1 and 3) or nasopharyngeal (patient 2) cancers was followed by relapsing or new tumors in the nasopharynx (patients 1 and 2) and hypopharynx (patient 3). Six non-opposed coplanar intensity modulated beams were generated by combining non-modulated beamparts with intensities (weights) obtained by minimizing a biophysical objective function. Beamparts were delivered by a dynamic MLC (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) forced in step and shoot mode. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Median PTV-doses (and ranges) for the three patients were 73 (65-78), 67 (59-72) and 63 (48-68) Gy. Maximum point doses to brain stem and spinal cord were, respectively, 67 Gy (60% of volume below 30 Gy) and 32 Gy (97% below 10 Gy) for patient 1; 60 Gy (69% below 30 Gy) and 34 Gy (92% below 10 Gy) for patient 2 and 21 Gy (96% below 10 Gy) at spinal cord for patient 3. Maximum point doses to the mandible were 69 Gy for patient 1 and 64 Gy for patient 2 with, respectively, 66 and 92% of the volume below 20 Gy. A treatment session, using the dynamic MLC, was finished within a 15-min time slot.
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5/81. Intraneural angiosarcoma and angiosarcoma arising in benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.

    AIMS: Angiosarcomatous differentiation represents the least common form of heterologous differentiation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST), and is seen most frequently in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. More rarely, it has been reported in patients without stigmata of neurofibromatosis, or in benign nerve sheath tumours and peripheral nerves. This study was undertaken to confirm this rare association. methods AND RESULTS: Four cases of angiosarcoma arising in a peripheral nerve, in a long-standing schwannoma and in two MPNST are described. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections with the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase method. An intraneural high-grade epithelioid angiosarcoma arose in the left posterior tibial nerve of a 78-year-old man, a well to moderately differentiated angiosarcoma was seen in an ancient schwannoma of the lateral neck in a 73-year-old women, and an angiosarcoma of varying grades of differentiation developed in a recurrent MPNST in the thigh of 38-year-old man. In addition a high-grade MPNST in the axillary region of a 30-year-old man showed foci of heterologous high-grade angiosarcomatous differentiation. The neural and endothelial lines of differentiation were confirmed in each case by positive immunohistochemical staining for neural and endothelial markers, respectively. In all cases tested, the neural differentiated cells stained immunohistochemically positive for antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the rare association of angiosarcoma arising in peripheral nerves, as well as in benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours.
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6/81. Esophageal carcinoma following radiotherapy.

    A patient previously irradiated for epiglottic cancer developed an upper esophageal stricture that on biopsy proved to be a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. patients receiving prior radiotherapy for a head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing a second esophageal cancer and must be followed closely.
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7/81. Distant lymphatic metastasis from head and neck cancer.

    A predictable pattern of metastasis based on tumor histology and site of origin has been well documented for most cancers that arise in the head and neck region. The current study demonstrates that this predictable pattern of metastasis can be significantly impacted by previous therapy, resulting in unusual patterns of metastasis in patients with recurrent tumors. A retrospective case series of 5 patients with head and neck carcinomas who developed metastases to distant lymph nodes is presented. All patients underwent surgery and radiotherapy to the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at the time of their initial treatment. All of the patients developed a local recurrence less than a year before the detection of distant lymphatic metastases. Cytology or excision confirmed metastases to the axillary, inguinal, or anterior intercostal lymph nodes. All of the patients underwent aggressive surgery for attempted cure of the local recurrence shortly before the presence of distant lymphatic metastases was clinically recognized. The metastatic workup of patients with carcinomas of the head and neck frequently includes examination of the regional lymph nodes as well as chest radiography, liver function tests, and serum calcium determination. This evaluation may fail to detect metastases to distant lymph nodes in patients who present with recurrent or second primary cancers. Such patients should undergo careful examination of all major lymph node-bearing regions of the body when being evaluated for the presence of distant metastases.
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8/81. Unusual multiple pilomatrixomata: case report and review of the literature.

    Pilomatrixomata are rare, benign, calcifying cutaneous tumours of the hair matrix cells. They usually present in childhood with a pre-surgical diagnosis of sebaceous cyst, because of their size and appearance. The usual sites of occurrence are the scalp, head and neck. Treatment is usually surgical excision. We report a case of unusual, multiple, benign pilomatrixomata in an Indian adult. The plastic surgeon should be aware of the various guises of pilomatrixoma and be alert to the important, although rare, occurrence of malignancy.
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9/81. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in benign ancient schwannoma: a case report with an immunohistochemical study.

    A rare example of malignant transformation in an ancient schwannoma arising in the right side of the neck of a 51-year-old man without any clinical manifestations suggesting neurofibromatosis is described. The tumor, approximately 4 cm at its largest dimension, was well circumscribed and had a direct connection with the sympathetic nerve. Microscopically, the central portion of the tumor showed features of ancient schwannoma characterized by extensive hyalinization with cystic degeneration, scattered spindle cells with hyperchromatic and tapered nuclei, and some symplastic changes. However, predominantly in the outer portion, a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells with enlarged nuclei was present. The nuclei of these cells showed irregular contours, coarse granular chromatin texture, and conspicuous nucleoli. Mitotic figures and small necrotic foci with scattered apoptotic bodies were also seen. Immunohistochemically, S-100 protein was almost negative in areas consisting of overtly atypical cells where the mitotic index evaluated with MIB-1 antibody was 30.5%. In contrast, S-100-positive bland spindle cells were scattered in an extensively hyalinized area with a labeling index less than 3%. P53 protein was strongly positive in atypical spindle cells. Although it is a very uncommon event, definite nuclear atypia, frequent mitotic figures, and the existence of small necrotic foci should be recognized as indicating a diagnosis of malignant degeneration of benign schwannoma. immunohistochemistry would be useful as an ancillary technique in such a setting.
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10/81. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue as a second malignancy in a patient previously treated for osteosarcoma.

    A 15-year-old girl was diagnosed with osteosarcoma; limb salvage surgery was performed after preoperative chemotherapy. Postoperatively, adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 2 years. One year after completion of chemotherapy, the patient was readmitted for systemic recurrence. amputation of the lower extremity and wedge resection of lung metastasis were performed followed by combination chemotherapy. Two years after cessation of chemotherapy, ulcer of the tongue was noted and cervical lymph nodes were detected by palpation. biopsy of the lesion showed squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent a radical partial tongue resection and postoperative irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Six years after treatment for the second malignancy, the patient remains well without evidence of disease. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue as a second malignancy after treatment of osteosarcoma is quite rare. Long-term follow-up, with particular attention to the head and neck, may be warranted in children treated for osteosarcoma.
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