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1/39. Cervical metastasis of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx.

    An occult, laterocervical papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue was found in a functional neck dissection for larynx cancer. The patient was a 76-year-old man with a history of smoking and alcohol ingestion who presented with a supraglottic carcinoma of the larynx located at the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis, left aryepiglottic fold, band and left ventricle with extension to the left vocal cord. light microscopy showed a lymph node with a fibrous stroma with lymphoid follicles that presented a total substitution of the parenchyma by a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although examination of the thyroid gland by seriated sections did not reveal any neoplasm, we argue that the papillary thyroid tissue is metastatic.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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2/39. Lymphepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lacrimal gland.

    In this report a patient with a lymphoepithelioma (LE)-like carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is described for the first time in the literature. LE-like carcinomas outside the nasopharynx rarely occur in the major and minor lacrimal glands of natives of greenland, Inuit or natives of southern china. The patient's tumor was extirpated using a Kronlein approach followed by total parotidectomy and modified radical neck dissection on the ipsilateral side after the detection of suspicious lymph nodes by ultrasound transmission. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was then carried out. Three years later there is no sign of recurrence. As a result of this case we recommend careful examination of the orbit and lacrimal gland in cases of LE-like cancer with an unidentified primary tumor.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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3/39. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst?

    We report a case of thyroid papillary carcinoma lying within a lateral cervical cyst for which no occult primary tumour of the thyroid was identified. We explore the possible diagnoses and include a discussion of how ectopic thyroid tissue may come to lie within a branchial cyst.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neck
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4/39. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, a new technique for increasing the detection rate of coincident thyroid cancer in head and neck oncology.

    Clinically occult thyroid cancer is not uncommon and may occur in 1% to 10% of the population Since the first studies on the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in clinical oncology some reports have appeared on the detection of occult tumors using this imaging modality. According to these results, the number of patients with head and neck cancer and clinically occult coincident primary tumors at initial presentation may be expected to increase. In two of the four patients presented, the coincident tumor was detected with FDG PET. The possible role of this new imaging technique is discussed in correlation with treatment and clinical outcome.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neck
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5/39. sensory deprivation as a consequence of severe head and neck lymphoedema.

    We report a case of sensory deprivation that occurred as a consequence of progressive head and neck lymphoedema, following combined surgery and radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma. The management of head and neck lymphoedema is discussed and measures are suggested for improving the sensory deprivation experienced by the worst affected patients.
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ranking = 6
keywords = neck
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6/39. Oncologic rationale for bilateral tonsillectomy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary source.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate an oncologic basis for the recommendation to perform bilateral tonsillectomy as a routine measure in the search for a primary mucosal lesion in patients presenting with cervical nodal metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). STUDY DESIGN: A case series of individuals selected from a 3-year period is reported. SETTING: Academic medical center. RESULTS: Each individual presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cervical lymph node from an unknown primary source. In each case, the primary source was identified in a tonsillectomy specimen, either located contralateral to the node, or in both tonsils. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of contralateral spread of metastatic cancer from occult tonsil lesions appears to approach 10%. For this reason, bilateral tonsillectomy is recommended as a routine step in the search for the occult primary in patients presenting with cervical metastasis of SCC and palatine tonsils intact.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neck
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7/39. Unknown primary detected by FDG-PET. A review of the present indications of FDG-PET in head and neck cancers.

    To investigate the indications of 18F-2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) Positron Emission tomography (PET) in head and neck cancer, the present study focuses on a case of cervical metastatic lymph node, which is not detected by the routine approach. It discusses the potential role of FDG-PET in the detection of unknown primary tumors, lymph node metastasis and post radiation follow-up, and demonstrates the implications of its findings through a few examples. Based on the literature in the field of head and neck oncology, the paper recommends the following uses for FDG-PET: 1. To guide biopsy or even local resection at the initial stage of examining the unknown primary lesions in case of high clinical suspicion 2. A whole body PET in high-risk patients may prevent unnecessary treatment and reduce the number of examinations 3. To monitor tumor response before full-dose irradiation so as not to delay the salvage surgery when applicable 4. To detect residual, recurrent or secondary neoplasm after definitive radiotherapy at least 4 months post-treatment 5. To revise the necessity of neck treatment in case of a negative PET, in the NO necks; and 6. In cases of clinical suspicion for laryngeal cancer recurrence and absence of objective findings before obtaining biopsy.
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ranking = 8
keywords = neck
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8/39. Metastatic cancer to the floor of mouth: the lingual lymph nodes.

    BACKGROUND: The upper level of a cervical lymphadenectomy is anatomically defined at its anterior extent by the lower border of the mandible and, in surgical practice, by the lingual nerve. A neck dissection completed below this level is generally considered adequate for removal of lymph nodes at risk for metastases from oral cavity cancer. Traditional discontinuous neck dissections do not provide for removal of floor of mouth tissue along with the primary and neck specimens. methods: A case report presenting biopsies from a T2N2bM0 squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue and adjacent floor of the mouth in a 73-year-old man. RESULTS: Deep biopsy of a ventral tongue and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma revealed occult metastatic cancer to lymph nodes located in the superficial floor of mouth associated with the sublingual gland above the lingual nerve. This report identifies floor of mouth lymph nodes that can be involved with cancer and missed through the standard practice of discontinuous neck dissection.Conclusions. This finding offers evidence that, in certain cases, a traditional discontinuous neck dissection may not address all lymph nodes at risk in the treatment of oral cavity cancer. Further investigation into lymph node distribution within the oral cavity is warranted to reappraise the upper limits of cervical lymphadenectomy.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neck
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9/39. Intra-uterine death resulting from placental metastases in adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.

    A thirty-five year old woman presented with bilateral neck, chest wall and back masses. She was 16 weeks pregnant. lymph node excision revealed metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of unknown primary. Abdominal ultrasound showed a mildly enlarged spleen and a 2-3 cm porta hepatis node. All other investigations were negative. The lymph node and cutaneous metastases progressed rapidly so it was decided to initiate systemic chemotherapy with a view to delivery at 28 weeks gestation by Caesarean section. Shortly after the second 3-weekly cycle of cisplatinum chemotherapy the patient suffered severe lower back and hip pain with MRI scan showing multiple bony metastases in the pelvic girdle. Ultrasound revealed the fetus to have been dead for at least 10 days. The products of conception were delivered following medical induction of labour. Two days later the patient suffered a cardiac arrest from which she could not be resuscitated. Placental histology revealed extensive metastases. With the exception of melanoma this has rarely been reported in solid adult malignancy. As a cause of fetal death, placental metastases are extremely rare.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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10/39. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the neck masquerading as malignancy on fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) is an exuberant, usually intravascular endothelial proliferation that, in many respects, mimics angiosarcoma. A case of PEH originally suggestive of embryonal carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration is presented. A 12-year-old boy presented with a palpable mass on the right side of the neck. The mass was subsequently aspirated. Cytopathologic features showed cohesive sheets of polygonal pleomorphic cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent multiple nucleoli in a hemorrhagic background. Cytologic findings were strongly suggestive of metastatic embryonal carcinoma. There was no evidence of a primary lesion. After the mass was surgically excised, the pathologic findings showed PEH. A retrospective immunocytochemical stain for factor viii-related antigen on a destained ethanol-fixed smear confirmed the endothelial nature of the polygonal cells. A vascular lesion should be considered, especially when atypical polygonal cells in a hemorrhagic background are present, as they were in this case.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neck
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