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1/54. Working with children of cancer patients.

    Through the use of verbal and nonverbal techniques, a social worker and music therapist have combined their fields into an integral therapeutic modality to provide patients with cancer and their children opportunities to experience intimacy in a time of crisis. Skilled verbal interventions and the sensitive application of the expressive and less threatening medium of music create a relaxed environment where families and patients may explore deeply and express freely.
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2/54. A mark on the arm: myths of carrier status in sibs of individuals with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    The ATM gene, mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), was identified by positional cloning. The discovery of the ATM gene now allows the identification of A-T heterozygotes [Telatar et al., 1998], who may be at increased risk of cancer. The purpose of this study was to (a) identify sib's interest in carrier testing, (b) explore perception of carrier status, and (c) assess levels of understanding of genetics of A-T. This is the sib component of a study of 103 parents and sibs (68 parents and 35 sibs) of individuals with A-T. Thirty-five sibs from 24 families, including 26 adults and 9 adolescents, drawn from the University of california, los angeles, the A-T Clinical Center at the Johns Hopkins University School of medicine, and the A-T Children's Project, were interviewed. Eighty-five percent of adult sibs stated correctly that if a child has A-T, both parents are heterozygotes; 76% knew the A-T gene had been identified. Ninety-two percent would request carrier testing for themselves if available. Seventy-nine percent would want their child tested for carrier status prior to the age of 18. Seventy-three percent believed that being a carrier is associated with increased health risks. Sibs have numerous misconceptions surrounding carrier status and genetics of A-T. Provision of factual information about genetic transmission is necessary, but unfortunately insufficient, to counter deeply held views of self and others. genetic counseling, which explores the way in which this information is filtered and interpreted, could be an effective tool in dispelling family myths. We conclude that A-T sibs need comprehensive support in relation to carrier testing.
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3/54. Disentangling ethical and psychological issues--a guide for oncologists.

    The rapid growth of bioethics has injected a new style of analysis into medicine. It requires philosophical rigor, yet is deeply embedded in human situations that frustrate abstract thinking and are laced with subjective factors. These interlaced ethical and psychological components can lead to conflicts and dilemmas. Doctors, as experts and decision-makers, play a key role, but will benefit from additional skills to disentangle these situations. This paper notes ways in which patients, families and caregivers are newly vulnerable and delineates how ethical dilemmas and psychological issues mold or frustrate decision-making. To help physicians manage such cases, a method of systematic analysis, the 'situational diagnosis', and a related hierarchy of interventions, is described and illustrated with case examples.
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4/54. radiation-related arterial disease.

    Arterial occlusive disease has been recognized in association with radiation arteriopathy and, rarely, with spontaneous arterial disruption. This association results from the greater role of radiation therapy in the current management of malignant diseases coupled with longer patient survival and the lengthy latency period between radiation and clinical manifestations of radiation arteriopathy. Experience with six patients having radiation-associated arterial disease was retrospectively reviewed. There were four men and two women, with a mean age of 51 years (range, 36-74). arteries exposed to radiation include two carotids, three subclavians, one coronary, and one femoral. The time from radiation therapy until clinical arterial disease was a mean of 14.3 years (range, 4-30). Operative repairs with polytetrafluoroethylene and saphenous vein bypass grafts were performed in four patients, stent placement in one patient, and one patient had spontaneous carotid disruption that ultimately was treated with ligation. In conclusion, elective bypass can be performed safely and successfully for arterial occlusive disease in a previously irradiated artery. In contrast, life-threatening arterial disruption secondary to radiation arteriopathy usually requires concomitant exposure to a source of bacterial contamination, and ligation may be the best choice to prevent recurrent hemorrhage.
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ranking = 2.8358993649726
keywords = vein
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5/54. Free filet extremity flap: indications and options for reconstruction.

    Radical and extended forequarter and hind limb amputations have been used for curative and palliative intents. Concerns regarding wound healing and closure, especially in irradiated fields, have occasionally limited the extent of ablation. This article reports an experience with coverage of these large defects by using the free filet extremity flap. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction with free filet extremity flaps between 1991 and 1998. There were nine men and two women with an average age of 43.9 years. All except three patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Resections included four hindquarter and seven forequarter amputations for palliation of intractable pain, tissue necrosis, and infections. Donor vessels included the brachial artery, its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and common femoral and popliteal vessels. Immediate reconstruction was successful in all cases by the use of the amputated limb as the free filet flap. All wounds healed despite irradiation inclusive of defects up to 50 cm x 70 cm (3500 cm2). The average follow-up time was 5 months with a mean survival of 3.5 months. Four patients currently are alive, and one patient died within 30 days of surgery. The remaining six patients have died of their disease within 9 months of the palliative procedures. pain, tissue necrosis, and infections were improved in all patients after hospital discharge. Extensive defects can be reconstructed and healed successfully, even in irradiated wounds, with the use of the free filet extremity flap. Appropriate advanced preoperative and intraoperative planning is essential. Although survival was unchanged, this technique allowed healed wounds with an improvement in the quality of life.
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ranking = 2.8358993649726
keywords = vein
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6/54. Trousseau's syndrome and acute arterial thrombosis.

    This report describes three patients treated for acute arterial thrombosis due to malignancy-related hypercoagulability (Trousseau's syndrome). The average age was 59yr. There were two women and one man. The cancers were breast, lung, and pancreas. atherosclerosis or nonneoplastic hypercoagulable states did not appear to be a factor in any patient. One patient who presented with irreversible arm ischemia and Stage IV breast cancer underwent primary amputation. The other two patients underwent immediate surgical thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapy, and malignancy was discovered during postoperative workup for hypercoagulable states. Both ultimately required amputation. All three patients died due to cancer less than one year after presentation. When a hypercoagulable state is suspected as the cause of acute arterial thrombosis, an evaluation for occult malignancy is indicated. Although aggressive revascularization attempts may be appropriate, the prognosis for limb salvage and long-term survival is poor.
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ranking = 1102.9936928982
keywords = thrombosis
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7/54. A fast algorithm to find optimal controls of multiantenna applicators in regional hyperthermia.

    The goal of regional hyperthermia is to heat up deeply located tumours to temperatures above 42 C while keeping the temperatures in normal tissues below tissue-dependent critical values. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse functions which can be used for computing hyperthermia treatment plans in line with these criteria. All the functionals considered here can be optimized by efficient numerical methods. We started with the working hypothesis that maximizing the quotient of integral absorbed power inside the tumour and a weighted energy norm outside the tumour leads to clinically useful power distributions which also yield favourable temperature distributions. The presented methods have been implemented and tested with real patient data from the Charite berlin. Campus Virchow-Klinikum. The results obtained by these fast routines are comparable with those obtained by relatively expensive global optimization techniques. Thus the described methods are very promising for online optimization in a hybrid system for regional hyperthermia where a fast response to MR-based information is important.
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8/54. Renal failure secondary to thrombotic complications of suprarenal inferior vena cava filter in cancer patients.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate renal function before and after suprarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement. methods: We describe, in a personal series of 13 consecutive cases (all of them stage IV cancer patients, one LGM filter, one Antheor filter, 11 Greenfield filters) in our institution, two cases of fatal renal vein thrombosis after placement of a suprarenal filter. Evaluation of renal function was based on serum urea (in mmol/L; normal 3.30-6.60), serum creatinine (in micromol/L; normal <115.1), and calculation of serum creatinine clearance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study suggests that in advanced-stage cancer patients who have a single functional kidney, renal functional insufficiency, or previous renal vein thrombosis, IVC filter placement above the renal veins may not be appropriate. Suprarenal filter placement should be performed only after analysis of predicted survival, after detailed discussions with the patient, and most importantly after renal function evaluation.
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ranking = 432.15681036904
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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9/54. Hereditary infantile hemiparesis, retinal arteriolar tortuosity, and leukoencephalopathy.

    BACKGROUND: The main hereditary vascular conditions involving both retinal and cerebral vessels include cerebroretinal vasculopathy, HERNS (hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke), and hereditary vascular retinopathy; all are linked to the same locus on chromosome 3p21. Hereditary retinal arteriolar tortuosity is a distinct, autosomal dominant condition characterized by retinal arteriolar tortuosity and recurrent retinal hemorrhages. This condition is known to affect only retinal vessels. methods: Clinical and brain MRI investigations of eight members of a three-generation family and extensive biological and systemic vascular investigations within one affected family member were conducted. RESULTS: Six of eight family members were clinically symptomatic; disorders included infantile hemiparesis (2), migraine with aura (3), and retinal hemorrhage (1). Five individuals had retinal arteriolar tortuosities. A diffuse leukoencephalopathy in association with dilated perivascular spaces was observed in six individuals. Two family members had silent, deep cerebral infarcts as demonstrated on MRI. genetic linkage analysis strongly suggests that this disorder is not linked to the 3p21 hereditary vascular retinopathy/cerebroretinal vasculopathy/HERNS locus. CONCLUSIONS: The authors describe a novel hereditary autosomal dominant condition affecting both retinal and cerebral vessels and characterized by infantile hemiparesis, migraine with aura, retinal hemorrhage, retinal arterial tortuosity, and leukoencephalopathy with dilatation of perivascular spaces and microbleeds on brain MRI. Investigation of additional families should help to map the gene and to better categorize the spectrum of hereditary cerebroretinal small vessel diseases.
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10/54. Acute deep vein thrombosis in hospital practice.

    A recent cross sectional study on symptomatic acute deep vein thrombosis at the National University Hospital (NUH) in singapore found a frequency rate of 0.79 per 1000 patient admissions. A total of 39 patients were accrued over 18 months, 36 with deep vein thrombosis alone and three complicated by pulmonary embolism. No sex or ethnic predilection was observed in this cohort of hospitalised patients. Twenty-eight (71.8%) patients were 40 years or older. Majority (89.7%) of patients had at least two predisposing factors. While prolonged bedrest and operative procedures featured equally frequently in patients above and below 40 years, neoplasms were predominantly associated with the former and protein c or S deficiency primarily with the latter. The exhaustive laboratory confirmation of an inherent thrombotic tendency is recommended only for patients below 40 years of age.
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ranking = 2935.5456687819
keywords = deep vein, thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein, deep
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