Cases reported "Neoplasms"

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1/61. Clinical value of protein-bound fucose in patients with carcinoma and other diseases.

    Protein-bound fucose content in sera from normal persons and patients with various malignant and non-malignant diseases was measured and statistically analyzed. Normal serum gave a mean value of 6.84 /- 0.13 mg/100 ml, and rarely exceeded 9 mg/100 ml. Although no significant difference was found between sexes, there was a tendency of fucose content to decrease in older persons. It was noted that more than 90% of cancer-bearing patients have significantly higher level than critical value (9 mg/100 ml), while only 8.7% of patients with benign tumor showed positive result. These results were not limited to special organs but in common to all cases studied. The elevation of serum fucose content in malignant tumor was well correlated with its stages of progression, though the levels were less significant in early and in rather locally restricted breast and thyroid cancer. Serial postoperative follow-up study showed that the levels in serum fucose content was a useful parameter for judging the effectiveness of therapy and the prognosis of the patient. The fucose content in malignant tumor tissue and metastasized lymph node appeared to be significantly elevated than that in normal tissue. The practical usage and limitation of the fucose value in various diseases, together with a possible source of serum fucose were discussed.
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2/61. Revision hip arthroplasty in patients with a history of previous malignancy.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The potential association between implants and malignancy has been discussed in the literature, but never as a cause of loosening of joint arthroplasty. methods: The records of all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty at our institution between 1992 and 1995 were reviewed. RESULTS: Among 93 patients who underwent revision hip arthroplasties, 11 (11.8%) had a history of previous malignancy. At surgery, in 2 of these patients, metastasis was found to be the cause of loosening in the affected hip. CONCLUSIONS: When revision hip arthroplasty is considered, patients with a history of malignancy require attenuated pre-, intra-, and postoperative workup. Management algorithm in such cases is proposed.
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3/61. A plea for incidental appendectomy in pediatric patients with malignancy.

    The evaluation of right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal pain in pediatric patients with malignancy can be difficult. However, since the mortality rate from peritoneal infections in these patients is very high, the differential diagnosis of RLQ peritoneal irritation, mainly of acute appendicitis (AA) versus neutropenic enterocolitis (NE), is crucial. Three cases of pediatric patients with malignancy demonstrating these difficulties are represented to enlighten this problem. The first patient died of multiorgan failure after operation for perforated appendicitis without generalized peritonitis. The second had a severe life-threatening postoperative complication because of delayed diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The third patient with malignant pelvic spread, underwent an unnecessary abdominal exploration for suspected AA. In all these cases and probably in many others, the clinical outcome could have been different if a previous incidental appendectomy had been performed during the primary abdominal operation. Incidental appendectomy in oncologic patients is recommended to facilitate the differential diagnosis of RLQ pain and to exclude the diagnosis of AA.
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4/61. Free filet extremity flap: indications and options for reconstruction.

    Radical and extended forequarter and hind limb amputations have been used for curative and palliative intents. Concerns regarding wound healing and closure, especially in irradiated fields, have occasionally limited the extent of ablation. This article reports an experience with coverage of these large defects by using the free filet extremity flap. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction with free filet extremity flaps between 1991 and 1998. There were nine men and two women with an average age of 43.9 years. All except three patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Resections included four hindquarter and seven forequarter amputations for palliation of intractable pain, tissue necrosis, and infections. Donor vessels included the brachial artery, its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and common femoral and popliteal vessels. Immediate reconstruction was successful in all cases by the use of the amputated limb as the free filet flap. All wounds healed despite irradiation inclusive of defects up to 50 cm x 70 cm (3500 cm2). The average follow-up time was 5 months with a mean survival of 3.5 months. Four patients currently are alive, and one patient died within 30 days of surgery. The remaining six patients have died of their disease within 9 months of the palliative procedures. Pain, tissue necrosis, and infections were improved in all patients after hospital discharge. Extensive defects can be reconstructed and healed successfully, even in irradiated wounds, with the use of the free filet extremity flap. Appropriate advanced preoperative and intraoperative planning is essential. Although survival was unchanged, this technique allowed healed wounds with an improvement in the quality of life.
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5/61. Trousseau's syndrome and acute arterial thrombosis.

    This report describes three patients treated for acute arterial thrombosis due to malignancy-related hypercoagulability (Trousseau's syndrome). The average age was 59yr. There were two women and one man. The cancers were breast, lung, and pancreas. atherosclerosis or nonneoplastic hypercoagulable states did not appear to be a factor in any patient. One patient who presented with irreversible arm ischemia and Stage IV breast cancer underwent primary amputation. The other two patients underwent immediate surgical thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapy, and malignancy was discovered during postoperative workup for hypercoagulable states. Both ultimately required amputation. All three patients died due to cancer less than one year after presentation. When a hypercoagulable state is suspected as the cause of acute arterial thrombosis, an evaluation for occult malignancy is indicated. Although aggressive revascularization attempts may be appropriate, the prognosis for limb salvage and long-term survival is poor.
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6/61. Intravascular occlusive therapy: use of interventional radiology in cancer patients.

    Selective transcatheter intravascular occlusion in the treatment of cancer patients is a valuable extension of interventional diagnostic radiology. Intra-arterial embolization may be performed with various substances, including autologous clot, autologous subcutaneous tissue, Gelfoam, and stainless steel coil. Clinical applications in cancer patients include control of gastrointestinal and genitourinary hemorrhage, preoperative reduction of tumor vascularity, control of local symptoms, and therapeutic reduction of tumor bulk. The technique has been used for preoperative and palliative treatment of neoplasms of the head and neck, kidney, liver, spleen, and soft tissue and bone. Transcatheter intravascular occlusion should be performed only by radiologists experienced in angiographic techniques. Inadvertent occlusion of a normal vessel and thromboembolism are possible complications.
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7/61. Heterotopic ossification in critical illness and cancer: a report of 2 cases.

    Heterotopic ossification is the abnormal development of bone tissue within periarticular soft tissue. We present 2 Turkish patients with malignant thoracic cancer who underwent extensive thoracic surgery and required prolonged postoperative chemical paralysis and cardiorespiratory support for respiratory complications. Both patients were found by the physiatrist to have multiple, extensive heterotopic ossifications. Clinical findings in both patients included joint swelling and severe limitation in range of motion (ROM) associated with pain. The diagnoses were confirmed radiographically. After an extended length of inpatient rehabilitation, both patients improved their cumulative FIM instrument motor scores by 23 and were discharged with a trained family member. Our findings suggested that heterotopic ossification should be suspected in patients presenting with decreased ROM, increased pain, and joint swelling after prolonged immobilization. serum alkaline phosphatase might be used as an effective screening tool.
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8/61. Central bronchopleural fistulas closed by bronchoscopic injection of absolute ethanol.

    Five consecutive bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs) were successfully treated by injecting absolute ethanol directly into the submucosal layer of the fistula under flexible bronchoscopic observation. No complications occurred as a result of this treatment. Our nonsurgical treatment may be very useful to reduce the costs of and duration of hospitalization and to improve the patient's quality of life. This is the first report of the bronchoscopic closure of BPFs by injecting absolute ethanol, and we would recommend this treatment as a first-line therapy for patients with a postoperative central BPF with an orifice that is < 3 mm in diameter.
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9/61. Clinical case seminar: Fibroblast growth factor 23: a new clinical marker for oncogenic osteomalacia.

    The phosphate-wasting condition, oncogenic osteomalacia, is problematic to diagnose and manage clinically due to difficulty in locating the causative tumor. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of oncogenic osteomalacia. In this case the patient presented with clinical features typical of oncogenic osteomalacia. Removal of an angiolipoma from the thigh did not correct the clinical or biochemical abnormalities. Subsequent identification and removal of a benign giant cell tumor in the pubic ramus, however, did result in normalization of his symptoms and signs. Positive staining for FGF23 protein by immunohistochemistry was demonstrated in the giant cell tumor, but not in the angiolipoma. The serum concentration of FGF23 was elevated in preoperative serum, then normalized after removal of the giant cell tumor. Expression of both FGF23 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in the giant cell tumor tissue, and FGF23 mRNA expression and renal phosphate uptake inhibitory activity were also detected in cultured giant cell tumor cells. This case provides further evidence for the involvement of FGF23 in the pathogenesis of oncogenic osteomalacia and for the utility of serum FGF23 measurement and immunohistochemical detection of FGF23 in the diagnosis and clinical management of this condition.
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10/61. Acute deep vein thrombosis in hospital practice.

    A recent cross sectional study on symptomatic acute deep vein thrombosis at the National University Hospital (NUH) in singapore found a frequency rate of 0.79 per 1000 patient admissions. A total of 39 patients were accrued over 18 months, 36 with deep vein thrombosis alone and three complicated by pulmonary embolism. No sex or ethnic predilection was observed in this cohort of hospitalised patients. Twenty-eight (71.8%) patients were 40 years or older. Majority (89.7%) of patients had at least two predisposing factors. While prolonged bedrest and operative procedures featured equally frequently in patients above and below 40 years, neoplasms were predominantly associated with the former and protein c or S deficiency primarily with the latter. The exhaustive laboratory confirmation of an inherent thrombotic tendency is recommended only for patients below 40 years of age.
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