Cases reported "Neoplasms"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/104. Experiences with high dose radiopeptide therapy: the health physics perspective.

    One of the new, promising areas of nuclear medicine involves radiolabeled low-molecular-weight peptides for the diagnosis and management of cancer. somatostatin analogous peptides bind to membrane receptors on tumors with high specificity. These analogues, when radiolabeled with 123I, 131I, 99mTc, or (111)In, allow for external scintigraphic imaging or radioguided surgical resection of tumors. somatostatin analogues with high tumor binding affinity have also been used for high-dose radiotherapy at the Medical Center of louisiana since 1994. Although we had extensive prior experience with relatively high-dose 131I administration for thyroid ablation, our personnel protection, contamination control, and other safety techniques required significant modification to ensure effective contamination and radiation exposure control. As therapy with radiolabeled peptides becomes more widely utilized, the controls developed at our institution may be implemented by others to maintain exposures ALARA.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/104. hypnosis instead of general anaesthesia in paediatric radiotherapy: report of three cases.

    PURPOSE: This report proposes hypnosis as a valid alternative to general anaesthesia for immobilisation and set-up in certain cases in paediatric radiotherapy. methods: We report three cases of children who underwent radiotherapy in 1994 and were treated using hypnosis for set-up during irradiation. The first and the second were two cases of macroscopic resection of cerebellar medulloblastoma in which craniospinal irradiation was necessary, while the third patient suffered of an endorbitary relapse of retinoblastoma previously treated with bilateral enucleation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy; in this last situation the child needed radiation as palliative therapy. hypnosis was used during treatment to obtain the indispensable immobility. Hypnotic conditioning was obtained by our expert psychotherapist while the induction during every single treatment was made by the clinician, whose voice was presented to the children during the conditioning. RESULTS: Every single fraction of the radiation therapy was delivered in hypnosis and without the need for narcosis. CONCLUSIONS: hypnosis may be useful in particular situations to prepare paediatric cancer patients during irradiation, when lack of child collaboration might necessitate the use of general anaesthesia and when anaesthesia itself is not possible.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/104. Radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery.

    OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery, and discuss technologic advances and their importance in present and future oncologic care. DATA SOURCES: radiation oncology textbooks and radiation physics and treatment planning textbooks. CONCLUSIONS: The increased sophistication and complex abilities of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery are steadily improving cancer treatment outcomes and quality of life. Radiation is now an essential and integral part of cancer care and may be used alone or as part of combined modality therapy. Further technologic advances will allow improvement in the ability of radiation therapy to cure cancer and improve quality of life for an ever-increasing variety of patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR nursing PRACTICE: Oncology nurses with an understanding of the components of radiation treatment plans and their delivery will be able to provide appropriate education for patients offered radiation and prepare them for the lengthy and complex process of radiation therapy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 7
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/104. Radiation-related arterial disease.

    Arterial occlusive disease has been recognized in association with radiation arteriopathy and, rarely, with spontaneous arterial disruption. This association results from the greater role of radiation therapy in the current management of malignant diseases coupled with longer patient survival and the lengthy latency period between radiation and clinical manifestations of radiation arteriopathy. Experience with six patients having radiation-associated arterial disease was retrospectively reviewed. There were four men and two women, with a mean age of 51 years (range, 36-74). arteries exposed to radiation include two carotids, three subclavians, one coronary, and one femoral. The time from radiation therapy until clinical arterial disease was a mean of 14.3 years (range, 4-30). Operative repairs with polytetrafluoroethylene and saphenous vein bypass grafts were performed in four patients, stent placement in one patient, and one patient had spontaneous carotid disruption that ultimately was treated with ligation. In conclusion, elective bypass can be performed safely and successfully for arterial occlusive disease in a previously irradiated artery. In contrast, life-threatening arterial disruption secondary to radiation arteriopathy usually requires concomitant exposure to a source of bacterial contamination, and ligation may be the best choice to prevent recurrent hemorrhage.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 8
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/104. Free filet extremity flap: indications and options for reconstruction.

    Radical and extended forequarter and hind limb amputations have been used for curative and palliative intents. Concerns regarding wound healing and closure, especially in irradiated fields, have occasionally limited the extent of ablation. This article reports an experience with coverage of these large defects by using the free filet extremity flap. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction with free filet extremity flaps between 1991 and 1998. There were nine men and two women with an average age of 43.9 years. All except three patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Resections included four hindquarter and seven forequarter amputations for palliation of intractable pain, tissue necrosis, and infections. Donor vessels included the brachial artery, its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and common femoral and popliteal vessels. Immediate reconstruction was successful in all cases by the use of the amputated limb as the free filet flap. All wounds healed despite irradiation inclusive of defects up to 50 cm x 70 cm (3500 cm2). The average follow-up time was 5 months with a mean survival of 3.5 months. Four patients currently are alive, and one patient died within 30 days of surgery. The remaining six patients have died of their disease within 9 months of the palliative procedures. pain, tissue necrosis, and infections were improved in all patients after hospital discharge. Extensive defects can be reconstructed and healed successfully, even in irradiated wounds, with the use of the free filet extremity flap. Appropriate advanced preoperative and intraoperative planning is essential. Although survival was unchanged, this technique allowed healed wounds with an improvement in the quality of life.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/104. nijmegen breakage syndrome. The International nijmegen breakage syndrome Study Group.

    BACKGROUND: nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. NBS-1, the gene defective in NBS, is located on chromosome 8q21 and has recently been cloned. The gene product, nibrin, is a novel protein, which is member of the hMre11/hRad50 protein complex, suggesting that the gene is involved in DNA double strand break repair. AIMS: To study the clinical and laboratory features of NBS as well as the genotype-phenotype relation. methods: Fifty five patients with NBS, included in the NBS registry in Nijmegen were evaluated. The majority of the patients were of eastern European ancestry. Most of them had shown a truncating 5 bp deletion 657-661 delACAAA. Four further truncating mutations have been identified in patients with other distinct haplotypes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Essential features found in NBS were microcephaly, usually without severe retardation, typical facial appearance, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, x ray hypersensitivity, and predisposition to malignancy. In 40% of the patients cancer was noted before the age of 21 years. Important additional features were skin abnormalities, particularly cafe au lait spots and vitiligo, and congenital malformations, particularly clinodactyly and syndactyly. Congenital malformations, immunodeficiency, radiation hypersensitivity, and cancer predisposition were comprehensible in case of dysfunctioning of dna repair mechanisms. No specific genotype-phenotype relation could be found. patients with the same genotype may show different phenotypes and patients with different genotypes may express the same phenotype. Specific mutations did not lead to specific clinical features.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/104. Reversible renal toxicity resulting from high single doses of the new radiosensitizer gadolinium texaphyrin.

    gadolinium (III) texaphyrin (Gd-Tex) (NSC 695238) is a potential radiation sensitizer that selectively localizes in tumors and is detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this single-dose phase I trial, reversible renal injury was the dose-limiting toxicity. This report details that renal injury. A single intravenous dose of Gd-Tex was followed 2 hours later by radiation therapy. The Gd-Tex dose was escalated in 13 patient cohorts. Doses ranged from 0.6 to 29.6 mg/kg. The maximum tolerated dosage (MTD) was 22.3 mg/kg. Three patients had grade II and one had grade III acute nonoliguric renal failure at the 22.3 and 29.6 mg/kg dose levels. The injury was always transient, and responded to fluid restriction and renal diet. In all patients, transient green discoloration including urine developed at doses > or =7.1 mg/kg. MRI studies demonstrated image enhancement in the liver, kidneys, and in primary and metastatic tumors in all patients receiving >5.4 mg/kg. It is important that the liver and kidneys be excluded from the radiation volume. Gd-Tex was well tolerated at doses below the MTD. It is important that the liver and kidneys be excluded from the radiation volume. We recommend that 16.7 mg/kg be used as the maximum single dose to obviate even low grade renal toxicity.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/104. methylphenidate for fatigue in advanced cancer: a prospective open-label pilot study.

    Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate are used for fatigue in cancer patients. We report a prospective, open-label, pilot study of the successful use of methylphenidate to treat fatigue in nine of 11 consecutive patients with advanced cancer. Seven had received radiation or chemotherapy, a median of three weeks (range from one to 30 weeks) prior to methylphenidate. A rapid onset of benefit was noted, even in the presence of mild anemia. Sedation and pain also improved in some. Only one patient had side effects severe enough to stop the medication.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/104. A fast algorithm to find optimal controls of multiantenna applicators in regional hyperthermia.

    The goal of regional hyperthermia is to heat up deeply located tumours to temperatures above 42 C while keeping the temperatures in normal tissues below tissue-dependent critical values. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse functions which can be used for computing hyperthermia treatment plans in line with these criteria. All the functionals considered here can be optimized by efficient numerical methods. We started with the working hypothesis that maximizing the quotient of integral absorbed power inside the tumour and a weighted energy norm outside the tumour leads to clinically useful power distributions which also yield favourable temperature distributions. The presented methods have been implemented and tested with real patient data from the Charite berlin. Campus Virchow-Klinikum. The results obtained by these fast routines are comparable with those obtained by relatively expensive global optimization techniques. Thus the described methods are very promising for online optimization in a hybrid system for regional hyperthermia where a fast response to MR-based information is important.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.23150022812492
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/104. The role of interstitial sources in radiotherapy.

    Interstitial sources of radiation are a useful and sometimes essential modality for achieving optimal dose distribution in radiotherapy. This paper presents examples of various applications of this technic. The essential advantage is not that survival statistics can be improved, but rather that whatever can be accomplished by ionizing radiation may be accomplished at a lesser cost in time, effort, and morbidity by judicious use of an interstitial radiation component.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Neoplasms'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.