Cases reported "Nephritis, Hereditary"

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1/161. Molecular genetic and immunohistochemical study of autosomal recessive Alport's syndrome.

    A dna analysis of autosomal type IV collagen alpha3 and alpha4 chain genes (COL4A3 and COL4A4) and an immunohistochemical study of type IV collagen alpha1 to alpha6 chains were performed in an inbred family with autosomal recessive Alport's syndrome (AS). A linkage study using polymorphic markers around the COL4A3/COL4A4 genes clearly differentiated the affected patients from healthy individuals. These patients were homozygous for all markers analyzed, whereas their parents were heterozygotes. Because of the large size of both the genes and the heterogeneous range of the mutations of these genes, linkage analysis by using highly polymorphic markers is still the method of choice in genetic counseling for autosomal recessive AS, as well as for the X-linked form. Although the distribution of alpha1 and alpha2 chains in the index patient and her affected sister were normal, the alpha3 and alpha4 chains were completely defective in the renal basement membrane (BM). The alpha5 chain could be found in Bowman's capsular basement membrane (BCBM) but not in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In addition, our study showed, for the first time, that the alpha6 chain in BCBM is spared in this form of AS. This abnormal pattern of type IV collagen could be a useful tool for differentiation of the autosomal recessive type from the X-linked type of AS. ( info)

2/161. Hereditary nephritis (with unusual renal histology): report of a first case from the west indies.

    A 21-year-old Grenadian girl undergoing investigation in Trinidad for anaemia was diagnosed as a case of hereditary nephritis. She had the clinical features of a nephropathy, nerve deafness and an ocular defect. Renal histology was exceptional in that in addition to the typical findings of a hereditary nephritis, cystic areas generally associated with medullary cystic disease were noted. Several members of the patient's maternal family were afflicted with either deafness visual distrubances or renal disease. ( info)

3/161. Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome: linkage analysis and clinical features in two families.

    BACKGROUND: genetic heterogeneity is a well-known feature of Alport syndrome (AS). Most families with AS show an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance but about 15% of families show an autosomal inheritance of the disease. Autosomal recessive AS may account for 10% of the total number of cases and is caused by mutations in the COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes. The clinical spectrum of this rare disorder has not been well clarified. methods: We present two families with AS. Two affected members of these families have entered end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in their 30s, and the other three are older than 15 years and have normal serum creatinine. Four of the five patients have deafness but none have ocular abnormalities. Two have been transplanted and have not suffered from anti-GBM antibody nephritis. Men and women are equally affected. We have performed linkage analysis for chromosome 2 with the following markers: D2S279, COL4A3/4 DNTR, COL4A4 RFLP Hae III. RESULTS: We demonstrate that both families, one of them consanguineous, are linked to the COL4A3/4 locus. CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that the only significant difference between the X-linked and the autosomal recessive forms of AS lies in the fact that in the latter females are as affected as males; thus the idea that autosomal recessive AS causes ESRD during childhood must be discarded. Other clinical features such as age of deafness or the presence of post-transplant anti-GBM antibody nephritis show no differences between the entities. Thus an accurate familial study is mandatory in patients with AS, as the identification of the different patterns of inheritance may cause a great difference in genetic counselling. Linkage analysis is the only effective molecular diagnosis that can be performed nowadays. ( info)

4/161. Hereditary nephritis, deafness and abnormal thrombopoiesis. Study of a new kindred.

    A fourth kindred displaying the triad of hereditary nephritis, deafness and thrombocytopenia with giant platelets is described. Renal involvement, a common cause of death amongst afflicted subjects, appears to have a better prognosis in the affected members of this family. Although the electron microscopic appearance of the megakaryocytes in the present case appears similar to that in previously reported cases, we suggest that the "giant" platelets may result from a degenerative process of megakaryocytes leading to nuclear regression and cytoplasmic fragmentation, rather than the usual blebbing process. ( info)

5/161. Coexistence of thin membrane and alport nephropathies in families with haematuria.

    The finding of familial haematuria without a history of deafness or renal impairment is often assumed to indicate a benign prognosis. However, we describe three families in whom Alport and thin basement membrane nephropathy were separately identified within the same pedigree. Our findings illustrate the importance of fully investigating families with haematuria, even if thin basement nephropathy has been diagnosed in one member. ( info)

6/161. rupture of the anterior lens capsule in Alport syndrome.

    Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder of type IV collagen, a major constituent of basement membranes. Eighty-five percent of cases are transmitted through X-linked dominant inheritance, although autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has also been reported. Clinical manifestations of Alport syndrome include progressive glomerulopathy, sensorineural deafness, anterior lenticonus, posterior corneal dystrophy, and abnormal retinal pigmentation. Anterior lenticonus may lead to loss of vision because of progressive myopia or cataract formation. We report 2 cases of unusual cataract formation in adolescent boys who had a rupture of the anterior lens capsule. One rupture was spontaneous, and the other was traumatic. ( info)

7/161. Effects of renal transplantation on hearing and ocular changes in a monozygotic twin with Alport's syndrome: comparison with other twin on hemodialysis.

    AIM: To present a unique case of Alport's syndrome in monozygotic twins with two different treatment modalities - renal transplantation and hemodialysis, and to evaluate the effects of therapy on hearing and ophthalmological findings. methods: Pure-tone audiogram and ophthalmologic examinations were performed in both twins at the age of 30. At the age of 46, 4 years after renal transplantation in the first twin and after 6 years of hemodialysis in the second twin, both twins underwent control audiometric and ophthalmologic examinations. RESULTS: Control audiometric measurements showed the progression of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in the high-frequency range (>2,000 Hz) in both twins. The hearing threshold progressed from initial 50 dB in both twins at the time of the diagnosis to 55 dB in the twin on hemodialysis, and 85 dB in the twin with a transplanted kidney. Retinal blurry hyperpigmentations disappeared in the twin with a transplanted kidney. CONCLUSION: In comparison with hemodialysis, renal transplantation in Alport's syndrome may have deleterious effect on hearing, when associated with plasma hyperviscosity and hyperlipidemia, but may lead to regression of retinal hyperpigmentation. ( info)

8/161. Bilateral serous retinal detachment associated with Alport's syndrome.

    We report a 14-year-old girl with Alport's syndrome who developed bilateral exudative retinal detachment in the macula. With the development of chronic renal failure, bilateral serous retinal detachment appeared which had the retinal flecks characteristic of Alport's syndrome. The serous detachment was resolved and vision recovered following intensive hemodialysis. As far as we know this is the first case with documentation of the onset and resolution of serous retinal detachment in Alport's syndrome. ( info)

9/161. Fechtner syndrome: physiologic analysis of macrothrombocytopenia.

    Fechtner syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder consisting of macrothrombocytopenia and leukocyte inclusions, associated with Alport's syndrome (hereditary nephropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular anomalies). We describe a 71-year-old Caucasian male with a history of hearing loss and asymptomatic macrothrombocytopenia incidentally noted in 1985. Several challenges to hemostasis were uneventful, including total hip arthroplasty. He subsequently developed progressive renal failure, with 'nil lesions' by light and electron microscopy, which was responsive to corticosteroid therapy. Eight family members are affected variably by either thrombocytopenia or renal failure. Laboratory testing gave the following results: hemoglobin, 10.2 g/dl; leukocytes, 5.0 x 109/l; platelets, 64 x 109/l (mean platelet volume, 13.3 fl; normal platelet volume, 7.6-10.8 fl). Peripheral blood smear revealed thrombocytopenia and leukocytes with inclusions. Electron microscopy of the buffy coat confirmed Fechtner inclusions within the patient's leukocytes. Whole mount and thin section electron microscopy revealed a population of large, although not giant, platelets. Despite thrombocytopenia, platelet aggregation was normal. flow cytometry of dilute platelets revealed normal glycoprotein alphaII beta beta3 activation and alpha-granule p-selectin secretory response to 10 nmol/l human alpha-thrombin. Dense granule adenosine triphosphate secretory response to thrombin was likewise normal. This case illustrates that 'giant' platelets are not universally present in Fechtner syndrome cases, although the platelets are enlarged. Finally, renal pathology other than Alport's nephropathy may be associated with this syndrome. ( info)

10/161. A novel G472R mutation in a Turkish family with X-linked Alport syndrome.

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary disorder of progressive nephritis. Most cases are X-linked, but autosomal forms have been reported. The X-linked form is associated with mutations in the COL4A5 gene that encodes the alpha 5 chain of type IV collagen. More than 200 mutations have been reported in X-linked AS. We report a novel 1616 G > A mutation resulting in glycine substitution to arginine at position 472 in a Turkish family with a severely affected man and several variably affected women. This is the first Turkish family in whom the molecular basis of the disease has been reported. ( info)
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