Cases reported "Nephritis"

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1/62. Use of hemiacidrin in management of infection stones.

    Unless all fragments are removed at the time of surgery for struvite stones a high incidence of recurrent infection and stone formation is likely. To reduce the recurrence rate of such stones the renal pelvis is irrigated postoperatively with 10 per cent hemiacidrin solution for at least 48 hours or until all fragments have been dissolved. We have managed successfully 35 patients (36 kidneys) without enxountering any complications. Included in our most recent series are 2 patients with solitary kidneys who had successful dissolution of stone fragments. Absolute contraindications to the use of hemiacidrin are infected urine, fever or flank discomfort. Although we have found hemiacidrin dissolution of renal stones to be safe and effective it is essential that the clinician be aware of the proper technique and its possible complications.
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2/62. Immune deposit nephritis in infectious mononucleosis.

    A 22-year-old white male (L.V.) died of gram-negative septicemia complicating infectious mononucleosis (IM) that was associated with jaundice and oliguric renal failure. The kidney showed mesangial granular deposits of IgM and C3, mesangial electrondense deposits, and interstitial infiltrates of infiltrates of mononuclear cells, including atypical lymphocytes. Eluates obtained from kidney, spleen and liver contained Paul--Bunnell (PB) antibodies. Presence of PB antigens in these tissues was indicated by absorption of PB antibodies from IM sera, with the sediments resulting from tissue elutions. The IgM mesangial deposits were partially eluted with acid buffer at 56 degrees C and then reconstituted by incubation with IM sera or with immunoglobulins eluted from tissues of patient L.V. The presence in renal structures of PB antigens, IgM heterophile antibody, C3 and electron-dense deposits is consistent with the hypothesis that heterophile immune complexes were localized in the kidney and that they contribute in the pathogenisis of IM nephritis.
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3/62. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish.
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4/62. Complementary role of dual isotope in non-bacteriuric renal infection--a case report.

    To detect non-bacteriuric renal infection in a diabetic patient, though difficult but is very important because early diagnosis and early treatment can prevent later complications such as renal abscess, renal hypertension or even end stage renal disease. Herein, we presented a case of diabetic patient with septicemia whose urine culture and renal ultrasonography were negative initially. By using a combination of dual isotope images and single photon emission computed tomography technique, an infectious lesion in the upper pole of left kidney was revealed, which was identified as acute focal bacterial nephritis by computed tomography four days later. This case report showed that 67Ga plus 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid images are useful in patients under clinical suspicion of renal infection, especially for those with negative urine analysis and/or urine culture initially.
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5/62. Complications of total abdominal and spleen irradiation in patients with lymphomas.

    Fifty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with total abdominal irradiation to a dose of 3000 rad by anterior and posterior fields treated the same day. Fourteen patients developed complications, four with intestinal obstruction due to stenosis and three with total or partial intestinal irradiation damage. These bowel complications were only seen in patients who had previously had a laparotomy. The ways of preventing these complications are discussed. We have studied renal function by means of clinical examination, biologic and radiologic investigations, and scanning in 75 patients who have received splenic irradiation to a dose of 4000 rad. With a mean follow-up time of 36 months, this study has shown that there was no significant change in blood pressure or in biochemical measurements. However, at the 17th month, nephrotomograms demonstrated cortical atrophy of the upper role of the kidney; at the 8th month, low uptake in the irradiated area was seen on 197Hg neohydrine scanning and a decrease in renal plasma flow in the left kidney during dynamic studies with Hippuran.
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6/62. Fatal mumps nephritis and myocarditis.

    The case of a 14-year-old girl with fatal interstitial nephritis and myocarditis as complications of mumps is reported. The illness began with parotitis; renal symptoms developed within a week. The patient's renal and cardiac status and clinical course rapidly deteriorated and the outcome was fatal. The post-mortem renal biopsy sample showed interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration, oedema, and focal tubular epithelial damage in biopsy material of kidney, confirming the clinical diagnosis. myocarditis was determined by electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. Since it has been reported that fatal complications such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and nephritis may develop in the course of mumps, the patients with mumps, especially in complicated cases, should be followed closely because of the severe clinical conditions which may progress.
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7/62. Focal bacterial nephritis (lobar nephronia) presenting as renal mass.

    A focal infection of the kidney can cause a diagnostic dilemma by mimicking a neoplasm. We describe a case of focal bacterial nephritis (acute lobar nephronia) caused by escherichia coli in which the diagnosis was confirmed only after surgical exploration. Although the patient had fever on admission, urine and blood cultures were negative and fine needle aspiration of the kidney could not rule out a well-differentiated carcinoma.
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8/62. Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1.

    BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme; its inducible isozyme, HO-1, protects against acute heme protein-induced nephrotoxicity and other forms of acute tissue injury. This study examines the induction of HO-1 in the kidney chronically inflamed by heme proteins and the functional significance of such an induction of HO-1. methods: Studies were undertaken in a patient with chronic tubulointerstitial disease in the setting of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), in a rat model of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy caused by repetitive exposure to heme proteins, and in genetically engineered mice deficient in HO-1 (HO-1 -/-) in which hemoglobin was repetitively administered. RESULTS: The kidney in PNH evinces robust induction of HO-1 in renal tubules in the setting of chronic inflammation. The heme protein-enriched urine from this patient, but not urine from a healthy control subject, induced expression of HO-1 in renal tubular epithelial cells (llc-pk1 cells). A similar induction of HO-1 and related findings are recapitulated in a rat model of chronic inflammation induced by repetitive exposure to heme proteins. Additionally, in the rat, the administration of heme proteins induces monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1). The functional significance of HO-1 so induced was uncovered in the HO-1 knockout mouse: Repeated administration of hemoglobin to HO-1 / and HO-1 -/- mice led to intense interstitial cellular inflammation in HO-1 -/- mice accompanied by striking up-regulation of MCP-1 and activation of one of its stimulators, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). These findings were not observed in similarly treated HO-1 / mice or in vehicle-treated HO-1 -/- and HO-1 / mice. CONCLUSION: We conclude that up-regulation of HO-1 occurs in the kidney in humans and rats repetitively exposed to heme proteins. Such up-regulation represents an anti-inflammatory response since the genetic deficiency of HO-1 markedly increases activation of NF-kappaB, MCP-1 expression, and tubulointerstitial cellular inflammation.
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9/62. hypertension in Henoch-Schonlein purpura with minimal urinary findings.

    Though hypertension is a common feature of Henoch: Schonlein purpura (HSP) acute nephritis, it is seen only rarely and transiently if renal function is normal and abnormal urinary findings are minimal. We report a 3.4 year old girl who had the typical arthritis and rash of HSP, but also had significant hypertension with only minimal urinary findings. Imaging investigations revealed one normal kidney, and one that was almost destroyed from previous reflux nephropathy; her hypertension resolved after unilateral nephrectomy. Other causes of hypertension should be excluded in children with HSP and minimal urinary findings.
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10/62. Interstitial nephritis, hepatic failure, and systemic eosinophilia after minocycline treatment.

    This report describes a 15-year-old white boy who presented with fever, back pain, a disseminated exanthematous rash, renal failure, and hepatopathy 3 weeks after the initiation of oral minocycline therapy for facial acne. Marked peripheral and urine eosinophilia were noted. A bone marrow aspiration showed more than 50% eosinophils without any evidence of malignancy, and a simultaneous kidney biopsy showed acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). The patient's symptoms and laboratory findings improved after high-dose steroid therapy was initiated, worsened when it was withheld, and improved again after it was reinitiated in view of the biopsy findings. The patient recovered completely, and steroids were tapered to discontinuation over 3 months. Over a year later, the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured for 2 weeks in the presence or absence of minocycline ex vivo, and minocycline was found to induce the emergence of CD4( ) cells after 1 week in culture. In conclusion, this article shows for the first time several new aspects of minocycline-induced morbidity: renal and hepatic failure can occur together, and AIN and elevated blood eosinophil counts can be accompanied by marked bone marrow eosinophilia, suggesting a systemic allergic response as the underlying pathomechanism. Furthermore, the initial phase of such a response appears to involve CD4( ) T cells detectable ex vivo. Lastly, high-dose treatment with corticosteroids appears to be beneficial in this setting.
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