Cases reported "Nephritis"

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11/62. Tc-99m MDP, thallium-201 chloride and Tc-99m MAG3 renal uptake in subacute and chronic radiation nephritis compared.

    The authors present a comparison of the findings for thallium-201 (Tl-201), Tc-99m MAG3 and Tc-99m MDP in subacute and chronic radiation nephritis in a 9-yr-old boy who was treated by radiation therapy for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the left chest wall by a radiation port that partially included the left kidney. Tl-201 imaging three and six months later showed a cortical defect in the left kidney due to radiation nephritis. Tc-99m MDP scan showed increased uptake on both occasions, but more marked in the subacute period than in the chronic period. Tc-99m MAG3 showed decreased concentration and increased cortical retention three months later. Six months after the radiation therapy, a cortical defect corresponding to the cortical area that showed increased parenchymal retention was more prominent in the Tc-99m MAG3 scan. In the present case, Tc-99m MDP, Tl-201 and Tc-99m MAG3 findings may provide useful information for understanding pathophysiological damage in the kidney after radiation.
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12/62. Acute focal bacterial nephritis: report of four cases.

    Focal acute bacterial nephritis is a localized bacterial infection of the kidney presenting as an inflammatory mass not containing drainable pus. The further distinction between acute focal bacterial nephritis and other renal masses is aided by the appropriate use of renal sonography and computed tomography. We report 4 cases with this entity.
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13/62. De novo C1q nephropathy in the renal allograft of a kidney pancreas transplant recipient: bk virus-induced nephropathy?

    C1q nephropathy is a distinct entity characterized by extensive and dominant C1q mesangial deposition with associated steroid resistant proteinuria in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus. Several morphological patterns ranging from very subtle glomerular alterations to focal/segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative changes have been described. Interstitial nephritis secondary to BK polyomavirus is a recently recognized complication in kidney transplant recipients. It may be associated with a tubulitis-like picture, mimicking sometimes acute tubular rejection. We report the case of a kidney pancreas transplant recipient who developed de novo C1q nephropathy, in the setting of BK polyomaviral interstitial nephritis. He presented with renal allograft dysfunction and a kidney biopsy was performed. It was interpreted as acute cellular rejection. C1q deposits were detected by immunofluorescence studies and electron microscopy. The patient did not respond clinically to appropriate anti-rejection treatment and a second renal biopsy was performed. The possibility of an interstitial nephritis secondary to BK polyomavirus mimicking rejection was suggested. Special immunohistochemical and blood/urine PCR studies for bk virus were performed, confirming the diagnosis of bk virus tubulonterstitial nephritis with a persistent, probable bk virus induced C1q nephropathy.
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keywords = kidney
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14/62. Diagnosis of renal and hepatic cyst infections by 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    BACKGROUND: infection of a renal or hepatic cyst is a serious complication of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although crucial for successful management, early diagnosis is difficult, largely because of nonspecific symptoms and limitations of conventional imaging techniques. Because of an increased metabolic rate, inflammatory cells take up large amounts of glucose. 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), therefore, represents a promising agent for detection of cyst infections using positron emission tomography (PET). methods: The authors studied the results of 7 FDG PET scans in 3 ADPKD patients suspected of renal or hepatic cyst infection. Two PET scans were performed in patient A (PET 1 and 2), one PET scan was performed in patient B (PET 3), and 4 PET scans were performed in patient C (PET 4, 5, 6 and 7). RESULTS: FDG PET identified the infected cysts in 2 episodes of renal cyst infection (PET 2 and 3), 2 episodes of hepatic cyst infection (PET 6 and 7), and 1 episode of both renal and hepatic cyst infection (PET 1). In patient C, FDG PET was normal after 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment for hepatic cyst infection (PET 4) and again at a time when hepatic cyst infection was suspected, but eventually colchicine intoxication was diagnosed (PET 5). CONCLUSION: In these patients, FDG PET proved very helpful in diagnosing and in excluding renal and hepatic cyst infections. It is concluded that FDG PET is a promising new imaging technique enabling early identification of renal and hepatic cyst infections in ADPKD patients.
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ranking = 6.5369619980043
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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15/62. Acute immune complex disease associated with hepatitis. Etiopathogenic and immunopathologic studies of the renal lesion.

    Immune deposit glomerulonephritis has been associated with hepatitis b antigenemia. Immune complexes of this antigen and its antibody have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the renal disease. A boy had acute immune complex disease with glomerulitis in which cryoprecipitable complexes of HbsAg and its antibody were isolated from serum. HbsAg was concentrated in the cryoprecipitate and localized in a granular pattern along the glomerular basement membrane in association with immunoglobulins. Glomerular fixed antibody was eluted and shown to be directed against HbsAg. The level of antibody activity to HbsAg was higher in the eluate than the serum, suggesting immunopathogenic specificity of the antibody. The study demonstrates that the nephritis was mediated by immune complexes of HbsAg and its antibody, and the presence of immunoglobulin on the kidney did not represent trapping from the circulation.
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keywords = kidney
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16/62. Acute adenoviral infection of a graft by serotype 35 following renal transplantation.

    Adenoviral infections of immunocompetent patients usually present as self-limiting pharyngitis, gastroenteritis, urocystitis, or conjunctivitis. In immunosuppressed patients, development of the illness can be severe, even life-threatening or fatal, and therapeutical intervention is difficult. Previous case reports of adenoviral infections after kidney transplantation have described a symptomatology of hemorrhagic cystitis, fever, renal dysfunction, and rarely fatal systemic dissemination. Here we report on a 46-year-old female renal transplant recipient suffering from adenoviral serotype 35 nephritis of the donor organ 29 days after transplantation. In this case, the main symptoms of the adenoviral infection were high fever and progressive renal failure of the transplanted organ. At the peak of the clinical symptoms, owing to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of a kidney biopsy, we were able to establish the diagnosis in time so that adequate therapy could be employed. immunosuppression was reduced and modified, and a self-limiting course of the infection was observed, followed by significant improvement of graft function. Subsequent to histological diagnosis, adenoviral particles were isolated from urine and identified as adenovirus serotype 35. Adenoviral nephritis of the transplanted organ should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent anuria after kidney transplantation. Our case highlights the importance of applying all possible diagnostic techniques, including histological evaluation of renal biopsies.
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17/62. Caroli's disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with polycystic kidney disease. A case presenting with acute focal bacterial nephritis.

    Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary ducts (Caroli's disease), until recently, has been infrequently recognized. It is often associated with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF). We hereby report a case with Caroli's disease, polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and CHF: This 24-year-old female patient initially presented with acute bacterial nephritis (ABN). Renal ultrasonography revealed bilateral enlarged kidneys with multiple cysts. Because her parents showed no renal cyst on ultrasonographic examination, she received further studies. Abdominal ultrasonography showed cystic dilatation of the biliary tree. Computed tomography (CT) with meglumine lotroxinate (biliscopin) infusion study and hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirmed the diagnosis of Caroli's disease. liver biopsy revealed CHF: The radiographic and scintigraphic pictures are hereby illustrated and CT with biliscopin infusion study is emphasized. We conclude that if radiologic evidence of renal cystic lesions is absent in the parents of patients with PKD, the coexistence of Caroli's disease and CHF should be considered. The clinical pictures of ABN in this patient are also discussed. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of ABN in a patient with PKD and Caroli's disease, and it showed good response to antibiotic therapy.
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ranking = 8.1776877309385
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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18/62. Evolution of acute focal bacterial nephritis into a renal abscess.

    Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) is a localized bacterial infection of the kidney presenting as an inflammatory mass without frank abscess formation, which may represent a relatively early stage of renal abscess. The pathogenesis of AFBN is thought to be hematogenous infection or ascending infection from the lower urinary tract. For the majority of children, the pathogenesis may be related to ascending infection, because pre-existing malformative uropathy, especially vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), is common in pediatric patients. Few clinical reports have demonstrated the evolution of this condition into renal abscess in children. We report a girl with AFBN associated with VUR that evolved into a renal abscess despite appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy. We undertook serial radiological observation of its evolution. It is important to differentiate AFBN from renal abscess because the management of the two entities may be different, and follow-up studies are indispensable to determine appropriate therapy.
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keywords = kidney
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19/62. Renal cholesterol embolism: analysis of two spontaneous autopsy cases.

    Two cases of spontaneous cholesterol embolism, which followed different clinical courses, acute and chronic renal failure, are presented and histopathological lesions are compared. Both cases were diagnosed as cholesterol embolism post-mortem. Case 1 (a 66-year-old man) had acute onset of illness with fever, leucocytosis and renal failure, diagnosed as vasculitis, and died of rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case 2 (an 84-year-old man) had eosinophilia of unknown aetiology for 7 years with intermittent worsening of renal function and died of sepsis. Case 1 had diffuse cholesterol crystal emboli in the interlobular arteries and arterioles of the kidney, but case 2 had patchy cholesterol emboli in the interlobular arteries of the kidney. The aorta of case 1 was diffusely ulcerated, which is in contrast to that of case 2, who had limited ulceration in thoracic aorta, which might have contributed to the long duration of illness. Immunohistochemically, the number of macrophages and T cells that infiltrated around cholesterol emboli in the arteries was more in case 1 (macrophages 27.7, T cells 36.1/mm(2)) than in case 2 (2.7, 1.38/mm(2)). Focal interstitial inflammation occurred in both cases. In case 1, marked tubulitis was observed. Case 2 had rather severe atrophy of the tubules and fibrotic interstitium where mast cells were rich (31.9/mm(2)). The number of B cells and eosinophils was few in case 2 (11.35, 0.7/mm(2)) compared with case 1 (101.9, 16.15/mm(2)). These results suggest that in acute lesions of renal cholesterol embolism, macrophages and T cells accumulate around cholesterol crystals and cause tubulointerstitial inflammatory lesions with other inflammatory cells. In chronic lesions, macrophages, T cells and mast cells are the major inflammatory cells present in the interstitium.
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20/62. Management of methylmalonic acidaemia by combined liver-kidney transplantation.

    Methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that typically presents in infancy with recurrent episodes of metabolic acidosis, developmental delay and failure to thrive. The disease course is complicated by the development of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to end-stage renal disease in adolescence. We describe two adolescents with cobalamin-nonresponsive MMA (mut0) who developed polyuria, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, dystonia but normal synthetic liver function. Both patients received combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT), preceded by a single pretransplant haemodialysis for clearance of methylmalonic acid. Post CLKT there was 95-97% reduction in serum and urine methylmalonic acid, leading to significant liberalization of dietary protein intake and a consequent increase in body mass index, muscle strength and energy. In addition, renal function normalized and clinical neurological status stabilized. We propose that CLKT be considered as a therapeutic option early in the course of cobalamin-nonresponsive MMA. Progressive tubulointerstitial nephritis with disabling polyuria is a confounder in patient management even in the absence of end-stage renal disease. Successful CLKT restores methylmalonyl-coa mutase enzyme levels in the liver and kidney, improves clearance of methylmalonic acid with resultant dietary protein liberalization, and offers excellent graft and patient outcomes with improvement in quality of life.
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