Cases reported "Nephritis"

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1/192. Use of hemiacidrin in management of infection stones.

    Unless all fragments are removed at the time of surgery for struvite stones a high incidence of recurrent infection and stone formation is likely. To reduce the recurrence rate of such stones the renal pelvis is irrigated postoperatively with 10 per cent hemiacidrin solution for at least 48 hours or until all fragments have been dissolved. We have managed successfully 35 patients (36 kidneys) without enxountering any complications. Included in our most recent series are 2 patients with solitary kidneys who had successful dissolution of stone fragments. Absolute contraindications to the use of hemiacidrin are infected urine, fever or flank discomfort. Although we have found hemiacidrin dissolution of renal stones to be safe and effective it is essential that the clinician be aware of the proper technique and its possible complications. ( info)

2/192. Immune deposit nephritis in infectious mononucleosis.

    A 22-year-old white male (L.V.) died of gram-negative septicemia complicating infectious mononucleosis (IM) that was associated with jaundice and oliguric renal failure. The kidney showed mesangial granular deposits of IgM and C3, mesangial electrondense deposits, and interstitial infiltrates of infiltrates of mononuclear cells, including atypical lymphocytes. Eluates obtained from kidney, spleen and liver contained Paul--Bunnell (PB) antibodies. Presence of PB antigens in these tissues was indicated by absorption of PB antibodies from IM sera, with the sediments resulting from tissue elutions. The IgM mesangial deposits were partially eluted with acid buffer at 56 degrees C and then reconstituted by incubation with IM sera or with immunoglobulins eluted from tissues of patient L.V. The presence in renal structures of PB antigens, IgM heterophile antibody, C3 and electron-dense deposits is consistent with the hypothesis that heterophile immune complexes were localized in the kidney and that they contribute in the pathogenisis of IM nephritis. ( info)

3/192. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish. ( info)

4/192. Complementary role of dual isotope in non-bacteriuric renal infection--a case report.

    To detect non-bacteriuric renal infection in a diabetic patient, though difficult but is very important because early diagnosis and early treatment can prevent later complications such as renal abscess, renal hypertension or even end stage renal disease. Herein, we presented a case of diabetic patient with septicemia whose urine culture and renal ultrasonography were negative initially. By using a combination of dual isotope images and single photon emission computed tomography technique, an infectious lesion in the upper pole of left kidney was revealed, which was identified as acute focal bacterial nephritis by computed tomography four days later. This case report showed that 67Ga plus 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid images are useful in patients under clinical suspicion of renal infection, especially for those with negative urine analysis and/or urine culture initially. ( info)

5/192. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OBJECTIVE: For patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who are at risk of disease-related mortality, we have initiated a protocol of intensive immunosuppression and haematopoietic stem cell support. The first patient enrolled in this study was in the midst of a lupus flare manifest by nephritis and rapidly declining renal function, uncontrolled hypertension, immune-mediated cytopenias, and serositis characterized by a large pericardial effusion and abdominal pain. Antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double-stranded (ds) dna and complement were abnormal. This patient is now more than 1 yr post-stem cell transplant and is taking no immunosuppressive medication. Her serologies are normal, effusions have resolved, blood pressure is normal and renal function is markedly improved. The clinical and serological course of this patient is summarized here. methods: Autologous haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were mobilized with cyclophosphamide (2.0 g/m2) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (10 microg/kg/day). stem cells were enriched ex vivo using CD34-positive immunoselection and reinfused after immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (90 mg/kg). RESULTS: White blood cell engraftment with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of >500/microl (0.5 x 10(9)/l) and platelet engraftment with a non-transfused platelet count of >20000/microl (20 x 10(9)/l) occurred on day 10 and 14, respectively. Therapy was complicated by a cell lysis-like effect with hyperphosphataemia, hyperuricaemia, normal anion gap metabolic acidosis and transient exacerbation of renal insufficiency. CONCLUSION: This is the first autologous T-cell-depleted haematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed to treat lupus in an active flare. This patient has, for the first time since discase onset (13 yr ago), entered a complete clinical and serological remission which persists at >1 yr of follow-up. The durability of this remission is unknown. ( info)

6/192. Possible association of retinoic acid with bone marrow transplant nephropathy.

    bone marrow transplant (BMT) nephropathy is characterized by the acute onset of nephritis more than 100 days after BMT. The renal lesion in BMT nephropathy is similar to radiation nephritis, but BMT nephropathy occurs earlier and with lower radiation doses than radiation nephritis. The combined effects of chemotherapeutic agents and nephrotoxic drugs given before and after BMT appear to sensitize or unmask radiation nephritis. Reporting of drugs that may contribute to BMT nephropathy is critical for the development of optimal treatment regimens. Herein, we report two cases of BMT nephropathy that developed coincident with retinoic acid therapy. Both patients received autologous BMT for neuroblastoma after preparative therapy with total body irradiation/melphalan/carboplatin/etoposide. They were randomized to receive cis-retinoic acid as part of a clinical trial. Both patients developed acute nephritis during their second 2-week course of retinoic acid on post-BMT days 105 and day 139. The nephritis was associated with hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, azotemia, hematuria, and proteinuria. Clinical features, laboratory evaluation, and renal biopsy indicated that these two patients developed radiation-induced BMT nephropathy. The fact that both patients developed nephritis concurrent with retinoic acid therapy raises a concern that retinoic acid may have unmasked radiation injury and triggered BMT nephropathy. ( info)

7/192. Complications of total abdominal and spleen irradiation in patients with lymphomas.

    Fifty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with total abdominal irradiation to a dose of 3000 rad by anterior and posterior fields treated the same day. Fourteen patients developed complications, four with intestinal obstruction due to stenosis and three with total or partial intestinal irradiation damage. These bowel complications were only seen in patients who had previously had a laparotomy. The ways of preventing these complications are discussed. We have studied renal function by means of clinical examination, biologic and radiologic investigations, and scanning in 75 patients who have received splenic irradiation to a dose of 4000 rad. With a mean follow-up time of 36 months, this study has shown that there was no significant change in blood pressure or in biochemical measurements. However, at the 17th month, nephrotomograms demonstrated cortical atrophy of the upper role of the kidney; at the 8th month, low uptake in the irradiated area was seen on 197Hg neohydrine scanning and a decrease in renal plasma flow in the left kidney during dynamic studies with Hippuran. ( info)

8/192. Fatal mumps nephritis and myocarditis.

    The case of a 14-year-old girl with fatal interstitial nephritis and myocarditis as complications of mumps is reported. The illness began with parotitis; renal symptoms developed within a week. The patient's renal and cardiac status and clinical course rapidly deteriorated and the outcome was fatal. The post-mortem renal biopsy sample showed interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration, oedema, and focal tubular epithelial damage in biopsy material of kidney, confirming the clinical diagnosis. myocarditis was determined by electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. Since it has been reported that fatal complications such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and nephritis may develop in the course of mumps, the patients with mumps, especially in complicated cases, should be followed closely because of the severe clinical conditions which may progress. ( info)

9/192. Granulomatous nephritis as a complication of intrarenal bacille Calmette-Guerin therapy.

    A case of granulomatous nephritis after intrarenal bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is reported. High fever greater than 38.5 degrees C lasted for 1 month, without response to conservative therapy. Standard nephroureterectomy was subsequently carried out. Histopathologic findings from the surgical specimen were compatible with BCG-induced granulomatous nephritis. The use of a syringe pump for retrograde instillation of BCG was thought to be the major cause of this severe complication. ( info)

10/192. Cochlear deafness in a Chinese family with Fechtner's syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the nature of the hearing impairment in the members of a Chinese family with Fechtner's syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. patients: A Chinese family with a variant of Alport's syndrome: high-tone sensorineural hearing loss, proteinuria, macrothrombocytopenia, and ocular disease. INTERVENTIONS: The diagnosis of Fechtner's syndrome was confirmed by the characteristic ultrastructure of the Dohle-like inclusion bodies in the neutrophils of the mother and her three children. Pure-tone audiometry, evoked response audiometry (ERA), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were performed in two subjects to investigate the hearing impairment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The parameters of the ERA and DPOAEs were correlated. RESULTS: In both subjects, the ERA was within normal limits, and there were no measurable DPOAEs in frequencies >2 kHz. CONCLUSION: The hearing loss in Fechtner's syndrome is cochlear rather than neural. ( info)
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