Cases reported "Nephrocalcinosis"

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1/11. rickets in an infant with williams syndrome.

    calcium homeostasis is altered in patients with williams syndrome. We report an infant in whom williams syndrome was diagnosed at 4 weeks who presented with hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7. This infant was treated with a low-calcium/vitamin d-deficient infant formula that resulted in the development of rickets. Replacement of the low-calcium/vitamin d-deficient formula with standard formula led to resolution of the rickets.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rickets
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2/11. A girl with rickets and nephrocalcinosis.

    A 5-year-old girl presented with short stature. She was found to have rickets due to renal phosphate wasting and nephrocalcinosis. serum parathyroid hormone was suppressed, 25-OH vitamin d was within the normal range, and 1,25-(OH)(2 )vitamin d was elevated. In addition, she had hypercalciuria, proteinuria, which was partially tubular in origin, and a reduced glomerular filtration rate of 58 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Treatment with phosphate supplements resulted in healing of the rickets and normalization of the serum 1,25-(OH)(2 )vitamin d level. This patient is an example of hypercalciuric rickets, most likely due to an inherited disorder of phosphate metabolism. Hypercalciuric rickets can be inherited as an autosomal recessive as well as autosomal dominant trait.
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ranking = 4.0002327632399
keywords = rickets, dominant
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3/11. Two heterozygous mutations of CLDN16 in a Japanese patient with FHHNC.

    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC, MIN 248250) is a rare autosomal recessive tubular disorder that eventually progresses to renal failure. However, the progression to end-stage renal failure can vary from patient to patient. A primary defect is related to impaired tubular resorption of magnesium and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Recently, paracellin-1 was identified as a renal tight junction protein predominantly expressed in TAL. Mutations of its gene (CLDN16) have been shown to cause FHHNC. We describe a sporadic Japanese case of FHHNC. The male patient showed hematuria, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis at 5 years of age. Hypomagnesemia was also noticed at this time. As renal function gradually deteriorated, further evaluation was performed at 14 years of age and a diagnosis of FHHNC was made. Despite several medications (magnesium supplementation, citrate, and hydrochlorothiazide), he eventually progressed to renal insufficiency at 19 years of age. Analysis of the CLDN16 gene demonstrated two heterozygous mutations (R149Q and R216C). Mutations of the same amino acids have already been described in FHHNC and thus these mutations might be the cause of the disease in our patient. Hence, we confirm the genetic impairment of the CLDN16 gene in a Japanese patient with FHHNC.
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ranking = 0.00023276323991837
keywords = dominant
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4/11. A novel mutation in the anion exchanger 1 gene is associated with familial distal renal tubular acidosis and nephrocalcinosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The anion exchanger gene (AE1) or band 3 encodes a chloride-bicarbonate (Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-)) exchanger expressed in the erythrocyte and in the renal alpha-intercalated cells involved in urine acidification. The purpose of the present study was to screen for mutations in the AE1 gene in 2 brothers (10 and 15 years of age) with familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), nephrocalcinosis, and failure to thrive. methods: AE1 mutations were screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism, cloning, and sequencing. RESULTS: A complete form of dRTA was confirmed in the 2 affected brothers and an incomplete form in their father. All 3 were heterozygous for a novel 20-bp deletion in exon 20 of the AE1 gene. This deletion resulted in 1 mutation in codon 888 (Ala-888-->Leu) followed by a premature termination codon at position 889, truncating the protein by 23 amino acids. As band 3 deficiency might lead to spherocytic hemolytic anemia or ovalocytosis, erythrocyte abnormalities were also investigated, but no morphologic changes in erythrocyte membrane were found and the osmotic fragility test was normal. CONCLUSIONS: A novel mutation in the AE1 gene was identified in association with autosomal dominant dRTA. We suggest that RTA be considered a diagnostic possibility in all children with failure to thrive and nephrocalcinosis.
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ranking = 0.00023276323991837
keywords = dominant
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5/11. Resolution of medullary nephrocalcinosis in children with metabolic bone disorders.

    Ultrasonographic resolution of nephrocalcinosis (NC) has been reported in children with furosemide-induced NC, but not in other entities. We report the cases of four children with metabolic bone disease, two with hypophosphatasia and two with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, in whom we observed resolution of renal calcifications. At the time of ultrasonographic resolution of NC, 3 of the patients were on anticalciuric diuretics, and all 4 had normal urinalysis, serum creatinine and electrolyte profiles, as well as estimated creatinine clearance. In 3 of the children, evidence of mild tubular dysfunction was found. It thus seems that in some children with bone and mineral disorders who develop NC, ultrasonographic resolution of the renal calcifications can be seen; however, mild tubular dysfunction may remain and require follow-up. Further studies are suggested to explore the possible role of anticalciuric diuretics in promoting the resolution of NC.
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ranking = 26.041467202997
keywords = hypophosphatemic rickets, hypophosphatemic, rickets
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6/11. A family with autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH): mutational analysis, phenotypic variability and treatment challenges.

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia with hypercalciuria (ADHH) is an intriguing syndrome, in which activating mutations of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) have recently been recognised. We describe a kindred with seven affected individuals across three generations, including patients affected in the first decade of life. Age at diagnosis varied from birth to 50 years. Affected members had hypocalcaemia (1.53-1.85 mmol/l), hypercalciuria, low but detectable parathyroid hormone (PTH) and hypomagnesaemia. Four of seven affected individuals were symptomatic (seizures, abdominal pains and paraesthesias), unrelated to severity of hypocalcaemia. Additional complications include nephrocalcinosis (n = 3) and basal ganglia calcification, identified by CT scanning in all five individuals. Symptomatic individuals were treated with calcium and calcitriol to reduce the risk of hypocalcaemic seizures. dna sequence analysis, identified a mutation in exon 3, codon 129 (TGC-->TAC) of the CaSR gene of seven affected family members, resulting in loss of a conserved cysteine residue, potentially disrupting CaSR receptor dimerisation. Thus, a novel mutation was identified in this family, who demonstrate variability of ADHH phenotype and also illustrate the complexities of clinical management. Optimal management of ADHH is difficult and we recommend judicious treatment to avoid an increased risk of nephrocalcinosis.
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ranking = 0.0011638161995919
keywords = dominant
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7/11. Erythrocytosis in hypophosphatemic rickets: irreversible complication due to nephrocalcinosis after vitamin d and phosphate therapy.

    A patient with hypophosphatemic vitamin d-resistant rickets developed secondary erythrocytosis during treatment with large doses of vitamin D2 and phosphate. Erythrocytosis was accompanied by a fall in circulating plasma volume and appeared to have developed as a consequence of nephrocalcinosis because it occurred after the appearance of nephrocalcinosis following several episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. nephrocalcinosis and erythrocytosis did not disappear even after recovery of renal function. Thus, the present observations point to the importance of preventing these irreversible complications that could cause renal failure, erythrocytosis, and thrombotic events during the management of hypophosphatemic vitamin d-resistant rickets.
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ranking = 123.85344003659
keywords = hypophosphatemic rickets, hypophosphatemic, rickets
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8/11. Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis: a manifestation of extrapulmonary pneumocystis carinii infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    A 38-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) demonstrated atypical nephrocalcinosis on abdominal x-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scanning showed the calcifications to be predominantly in a cortical distribution. The patient had evidence of disseminated pneumocystis carinii infection, and histologically the renal calcifications occurred in areas of renal Pneumocystis infection. Intrarenal infection with pneumocystis carinii can be added to the causes of nephrocalcinosis. However, the radiologic picture is so unique that it should suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate patient.
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ranking = 0.00023276323991837
keywords = dominant
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9/11. Familial distal renal tubular acidosis with neurosensory deafness: early nephrocalcinosis.

    nephrocalcinosis was observed in 3 children of one family with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). At presentation, all 3 patients had failure to thrive, rickets, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia and hypercalciuria. At a later age, sensorineural hearing impairment was detected. nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in the index case at the age of 5 years, when a plain abdominal roentgenogram was first made; in the younger brother and sister, nephrocalcinosis was detected earlier at the age of 4 months and 5 weeks, respectively. All 3 patients required large doses of alkali (7.5-9.5 mEq/kg body weight/day) during infancy and early childhood to correct the acidosis and to prevent progression of the nephrocalcinosis. Contrary to the current notion that in children with dRTA, nephrocalcinosis is observed only after the age of 3 years, it appears that in some instances nephrocalcinosis may develop in early infancy. The occurrence of nephrocalcinosis at a very young age may be a manifestation of a severe genetically transmitted variant of dRTA and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and optimal treatment of these patients from the first days of life.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = rickets
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10/11. nephrocalcinosis in a child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and a prolapsing ectopic ureterocele.

    Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease commonly presents in adults, it can occur in children. Usually, renal calcification in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is manifested as calculi or as hemorrhage into a renal cyst. An ectopic ureterocele is a well-known finding in patients with renal duplication. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a child who had combined findings of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, nephrocalcinosis, and an obstructing ectopic ureterocele.
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ranking = 0.0016293426794286
keywords = dominant
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