Cases reported "Nephrosclerosis"

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1/7. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis superimposed on biopsy-proven diabetic nephrosclerosis.

    We present a case of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis with diabetic nephrosclerosis, diagnosed by serial renal biopsies within a short period. A 78-year-old man with renal insufficiency, who had been diagnosed with diabetic nephrosclerosis by renal biopsy 9 months earlier, was admitted to the hospital for dyspnea and rapid deterioration of renal function. The titer of serum MPO-ANCA was high, and the second renal biopsy confirmed the presence of necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescents. methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral administration of prednisolone led to resolution of respiratory symptoms and reversal of MPO-ANCA. Renal function did not improve, however, necessitating hemodialysis. A review of the literature showed several cases of necrotizing glomerulonephritis superimposed on diabetic nephropathy but only a few reported cases of MPO-ANCA glomerulonephritis associated with diabetic nephrosclerosis. Diabetic patients who show rapid deterioration of renal function should undergo renal biopsy to determine the concomitant presence, if any, of other glomerular diseases and to prevent life-threatening systemic involvement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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2/7. A patient with apolipoprotein e2 variant (Q187E) without lipoprotein glomerulopathy.

    Four apolipoprotein (apo) E variants have been reported to be associated with lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG), which is characterized by type III hyperlipoproteinemia (type III HLP) and proteinuria and frequently leads to nephrotic syndrome. We report the histologic findings in the kidneys of a type III HLP patient with an apo E variant, apo E Toranomon, in which the glutamine at residue 187 in apo E is substituted by glutamic acid (Q187E). The patient also had type 2 diabetes mellitus. No evidence of lipoprotein thrombi suggestive of LPG was detected, however, and the histologic diagnosis was diabetic nephrosclerosis. This unique case illustrates that not all apo E variants result in LPG, and the location of mutations in the apo E protein is one of the important determinants for the development of LPG.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = diabetic
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3/7. sirolimus-induced thrombotic microangiopathy in a renal transplant recipient.

    A rare but well-documented serious adverse reaction to the administration of the calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients is the development of medication-induced thrombotic microangiopathy. The recently introduced immunosuppressive medication sirolimus has a very similar molecular structure to tacrolimus and also binds to the same intracellular proteins. Despite these similarities with tacrolimus, sirolimus has a different side-effect profile and reportedly lacks documented specific renal toxicity. This is a case report of the isolated administration of sirolimus without a concomitant calcineurin inhibitor being associated with the development of renal transplant biopsy-proven thrombotic microangiopathy. The patient is a 47-year-old African-American woman whose primary cause of renal failure was not thrombotic micrangiopathy, and she received a 5-antigen mismatched cadaveric renal transplant. Because of preexisting nephrosclerosis in the renal transplant, this patient was never administered a calcineurin inhibitor but was always maintained on sirolimus. With recent animal data showing that sirolmus can be nephrotoxic in a renal ischemic-reperfusion model (similar to what happens with a renal transplant), the authors speculate on a mechanism for this adverse reaction.
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ranking = 0.67821530286123
keywords = microangiopathy
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4/7. Amyloid vascular disease and contracted kidneys--report of a case with review of literature.

    A case of systemic amyloidosis associated with bronchiectasis is presented. At necropsy, contracted kidneys and centrilobular necrosis of the liver were observed. Systemic blood vessels had heavy deposition of amyloid, and the possibility of visceral ischemia and the development of contracted kidneys due to amyloid vascular disease as a pathogenetic relationship, was discussed against the background of a review of the literature.
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ranking = 0.29993370174979
keywords = vascular disease
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5/7. Acquired renal cysts and multiple renal cell and urothelial tumors.

    This paper reports two cases of acquired renal cysts and multiple renal cell tumors in end-stage kidneys with a discussion of the pathogenesis of these lesions. The first patient had been on maintenance dialysis for approximately three years when he was found to have multiple renal cysts and renal cell tumors. He subsequently developed multifocal urothelial carcinomas of the lower urinary tract. The second patient had progressive renal failure due to hypertensive vascular disease when he underwent left nephrectomy because of multiple renal cysts and renal cell carcinoma. He later developed terminal renal failure and was maintained on chronic dialysis. He expired three years later. At autopsy, the right kidney also demonstrated multiple cysts and renal cell tumors.
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ranking = 0.059986740349957
keywords = vascular disease
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6/7. Accelerated hypertension and nephroangiosclerosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    We describe two patients with the primary antiphospholipid syndrome who presented with severe hypertension. Renal biopsy specimen provided histologic evidence of intra-renal vascular disease with intravascular microthrombosis and nephrosclerosis, without feature of proliferative glomerulopathy. Accelerated hypertension and nephroangiosclerosis might indeed be one of the complications associated with anticardiolipin antibodies. The mechanism responsible might be the interaction of anticardiolipin antibodies, platelets and endothelial cell leading to microthrombi formation and increased local mitogenic activity that attract and stimulate neighbouring smooth muscle cell and fibroblast proliferation.
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ranking = 0.059986740349957
keywords = vascular disease
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7/7. Rapid-onset diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    We report a case of rapidly progressive diabetic nephropathy, from little diabetic change on renal biopsy to severe, nodular, diabetic nephrosclerosis over 32 months. The patient was taking an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and had a mean arterial pressure of 95 mm Hg over this time period. Her dietary protein intake was low, at least upon presentation. She had three additional mechanisms or potential mechanisms of injury: monoclonal kappa light chains; IgA immune deposits on the first, but not the second biopsy; and longstanding hypertension. Her renal histology was typical for diabetic nephropathy but was not characteristic of kappa light chain disease. We suggest that diabetic nephropathy may develop more rapidly than previously assumed, especially when additional mechanisms of injury, or additional promoters of mesangial matrix accumulation are present.
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ranking = 1.125
keywords = diabetic
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