Cases reported "Nephrotic Syndrome"

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1/42. Effect of camostat mesilate on urinary protein excretion in three patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy.

    Effective treatment has not yet been established for patients with persistent proteinuria and hypoproteinemia related to advanced diabetic nephropathy. We report three patients with diabetic nephropathy presented with the nephrotic syndrome who showed a marked decrease in proteinuria following the administration of camostat mesilate, a protease inhibitor. Each patient was resistant to treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a platelet-aggregation inhibitor. Camostat mesilate, 600 mg/day, orally, caused a marked decrease in urinary protein excretion after the 7th consecutive day of drug administration. There were no serious adverse effects. Its mechanism of action in this respect is not known. Camostat mesilate thus merits clinical trials in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome related to diabetic nephropathy.
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keywords = diabetic
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2/42. Renal complications in patients with diabetes mellitus associated with an A to G mutation of mitochondrial dna at the 3243 position of leucine tRNA.

    The substitution of guanine for adenine at position 3243 of the leucine tRNA gene of mitochondrial dna was originally described in association with MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes). diabetes mellitus associated with the mutation (mitochondrial diabetes) is a different phenotype from MELAS. We identified 11 patients with the mutation among 385 Japanese diabetic patients: two had MELAS and nine had mitochondrial diabetes. We present data on a male patient with mitochondrial diabetes who developed the nephrotic syndrome at the age of 23. light microscopy revealed mesangial expansion, PAS-positive deposits and segmental sclerosis in the glomeruli. Scattered mesangial electron-dense deposits and thickening of the basement membrane were found on electron microscopy, suggesting that diabetic glomerulosclerosis accompanied by focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS). Mitochondrial diabetes may pre-dispose patients to renal complications, including forms of glomerulonephritis, such as FGS.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = diabetic
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3/42. Diabetic nephropathy accompanied by iodine-induced non-autoimmune primary hypothyroidism: two case reports.

    We reported 2 diabetic patients with nephrotic syndrome due to advanced diabetic nephropathy complicated by non-autoimmune primary hypothyroidism. hypothyroidism developed along with the anasarcous status. Histological examinations of the thyroid gland revealed almost normal thyroid follicles without lymphocytic infiltration. The amounts of thyroid hormone lost into the extravascular space such as in urine and ascites were not sufficient to cause hypothyroidism alone. Serum total iodine levels measured during the hypothyroidal state in both cases were definitely elevated, and the perchlorate discharge test of both cases showed positive discharge (24 and 34%, respectively). The thyroid functions normalized after iodine restriction in the first case and initiating hemodialysis in the second case, in parallel with normalization of serum total iodine levels. These findings suggest that impaired renal handling of iodine resulting in elevation of serum iodine levels, rather than an autoimmune mechanism or extravascular hormone loss, played a principal role in the development of primary hypothyroidism found in these 2 patients, probably through a prolonged Wolff-Chaikoff effect.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = diabetic
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4/42. Catastrophic exacerbation of antiphospholipid syndrome after lung adenocarcinoma biopsy.

    We describe a 60-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome due to a glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy caused by the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) associated with a lung adenocarcinoma. Although no significant aggravation of APS was noted following renal biopsy, catastrophic exacerbation of APS occurred 3 days after a lung adenocarcinoma biopsy while warfarin and prednisolone were being administered. The patient died of multiple organ failure 37 days after the lung adenocarcinoma biopsy. This case emphasizes the need for great caution for catastrophic exacerbation of malignancy associated APS following biopsy of the underlying malignancy.
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ranking = 0.03321720913063
keywords = microangiopathy
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5/42. Histological changes of the pancreas in an elderly diabetic patient positive for GAD antibody.

    We examined the histological changes of the pancreas in a 75-year-old diabetic woman who was treated with sulphonylurea for 10 years and required insulin treatment for the subsequant 10 years. She was positive for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD Ab) 20 years after the diagnosis of diabetes. Her autopsied pancreas revealed disfigured islets and no beta cells. These changes were indistinguishable from those of the long-sustained type 1 diabetes mellitus, and insulitis was not found. This case suggests that diabetic patients positive for the GAD Ab, even if oral hypoglycemic agents are effective, may develop complete beta cell destruction over a long period.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = diabetic
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6/42. nephrotic syndrome due to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) as the first manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection: recovery before antiretroviral therapy without specific treatment against TMA.

    BACKGROUND: Among the possible renal complications that can develop a human immunodeficiency virus- (hiv) infected patient, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is one of them. This is a type of vascular lesion more common in hiv patients than in normal population, and sometimes it can be the first manifestation of the hiv infection. methods: We present a patient with TMA in whom the subsequent investigation to find the cause of TMA revealed hiv infection and giardia lamblia in stool. RESULTS: Before antiretroviral therapy was started the patient began to show recovery of the hemolytic anemia, recovery of the nephrotic syndrome and partial remission of the proteinuria, so that he did not receive specific therapy for TMA. CONCLUSIONS: hiv infection should be suspected in patients presenting with TMA, and a hiv test should be routinely performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation of TMA. If the patients have not developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the prognosis of TMA is equal to non-infected ones.
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ranking = 0.16608604565315
keywords = microangiopathy
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7/42. Spontaneous remission of the nephrotic syndrome in diabetic nephropathy.

    A 28 year old woman, with diabetes since age 18, had the nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and renal insufficiency. The initial renal biopsy specimen revealed diffuse glomerulosclerosis with early nodular changes. After an initial decline in renal function, her creatinine clearance progressively improved and has remained normal. Within 2 years she had a spontaneous remission of the nephrotic syndrome despite the presence of more pronounced nodular glomerular lesions. Although the renal hemodynamic functions were normal, certain tubular functions were impaired. Since we found no etiology for the nephrotic syndrome other than diabetic glomerulopathy, the complete remission of the nephrotic syndrome and improvement in renal function were very unusual events.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = diabetic
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8/42. Reversible acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome in a Type 1 diabetic patient.

    nephrotic syndrome is a condition commonly associated with end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy. It is usually associated with long-standing renal insufficiency, microalbuminuria, and overt proteinuria. We present a diabetic patient with acute oliguric renal failure and nephrotic syndrome. At presentation, he had a serum creatinine of 2.3 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 69 mg/dl, urinary protein excretion of 10.5 g/24 h, serum albumin of 1.3 g/dl, and a urine output < 400 cc/24 h. A renal biopsy was done and the renal pathology was compatible with early diabetic nephropathy. Despite intense diuretic therapy, the patient's renal condition did not improve, and peritoneal dialysis was started several months after diagnosis. After 8 months of dialysis therapy, the patient's renal parameters and urinary output spontaneously restored to normal limits (serum creatinine was 1.1 mg/dl, urinary albumin excretion was 411 mg/24 h, serum albumin was 4.3 g/dl, and normal urine output) and dialysis was discontinued. His renal function did not deteriorate after discontinuation of dialysis. We conclude that this patient's reversible acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome were associated with minimal change disease and not due to diabetic nephropathy.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = diabetic
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9/42. Management of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Four children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) coexisting with type 1 diabetes are presented. This number is higher than expected according to the estimated prevalence rates for each disease separately. In three, diabetes preceded nephrotic syndrome (NS), and in one it developed almost simultaneously. None of the patients had hypertension or retinopathy. Two had a renal biopsy: in one it was compatible with minimal change histology (MCH), and the other had MCH and early diabetic nephropathy changes. In addition to the two presented here, in 11 of 12 previously reported cases with biopsy proven SSNS coexisting with type 1 diabetes, the biopsy showed MCH. In none was treatment influenced by biopsy results. However, our experience suggests that daily steroid taper allows easier glycaemic control than alternate day steroids. We conclude that the indications for a renal biopsy in nephrotic children with and without insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) should be similar.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = diabetic
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10/42. Diffuse diabetic glomerulosclerosis in a patient with impaired glucose tolerance: report on a patient who later develops diabetes mellitus.

    Diabetic glomerulosclerosis might be seen in diabetics but its presence in patients with impaired glucose tolerance is quite rare. A 31-year-old woman who was admitted to our department was diagnosed with hypertension, nephrotic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance. Her renal biopsy was compatible with diabetic glomerulosclerosis. She developed overt diabetes mellitus (DM) after one year of impaired glucose tolerance. hypertension might have accelerated the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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