Cases reported "Nephrotic Syndrome"

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1/112. Cerebral venous thrombosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome--case reports.

    The authors describe two cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The main clinical features of CVT were persistent headache, hemiparesis, and seizure, and the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Both showed acquired deficiency of free protein S. The neurologic symptoms remained stationary in the first patient, who received no anticoagulation therapy, but resolved rapidly in the second, treated with intravenous heparin and supplemented with fresh frozen plasma. CVT should be suspected in patients with nephrotic syndrome who present with symptoms of intracranial hypertension or any focal neurologic deficit.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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2/112. Endovascular thrombolysis for symptomatic cerebral venous thrombosis.

    OBJECT: The authors sought to treat potentially catastrophic intracranial dural and deep cerebral venous thrombosis by using a multimodality endovascular approach. methods: Six patients aged 14 to 75 years presented with progressive symptoms of thrombotic intracranial venous occlusion. Five presented with neurological deficits, and one patient had a progressive and intractable headache. All six had known risk factors for venous thrombosis: inflammatory bowel disease (two patients), nephrotic syndrome (one), cancer (one), use of oral contraceptive pills (one), and puerperium (one). Four had combined dural and deep venous thrombosis, whereas clot formation was limited to the dural venous sinuses in two patients. All patients underwent diagnostic cerebral arteriograms followed by transvenous catheterization and selective sinus and deep venous microcatheterization. Urokinase was delivered at the proximal aspect of the thrombus in dosages of 200,000 to 1,000,000 IU. In two patients with thrombus refractory to pharmacological thrombolytic treatment, mechanical wire microsnare maceration of the thrombus resulted in sinus patency. Radiological studies obtained 24 hours after thrombolysis reconfirmed sinus/vein patency in all patients. All patients' symptoms and neurological deficits improved, and no procedural complications ensued. Follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 35 months, and all six patients remain free of any symptomatic venous reocclusion. Factors including patients' age, preexisting medical conditions, and duration of symptoms had no statistical bearing on the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: patients with both dural and deep cerebral venous thrombosis often have a variable clinical course and an unpredictable neurological outcome. With recent improvements in interventional techniques, endovascular therapy is warranted in symptomatic patients early in the disease course, prior to morbid and potentially fatal neurological deterioration.
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ranking = 1.6010540688022
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein, deep
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3/112. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome presented by total infarction of right kidney with nephrotic syndrome.

    We report the case of a young woman with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which presented with acute renal failure, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and nephrotic proteinuria. Investigations showed total infarction of right kidney by extensive arterial and vein thrombosis and presence of anticardiolipin antibodies IgG isotype (anti-beta2-glycoprotein I-positive). She was submitted to right nefrectomy and initiated anticoagulant therapy. After nefrectomy, the postoperative period was marked by the development of arterial hypertension and persistence of nephrotic syndrome. Hypertension was treated with antihypertensive drugs (IECA, beta-blocker and calcium antagonist). As the nephrotic syndrome persisted despite anticoagulant and antihypertensive therapy, the patient was treated with oral corticosteroids. Her renal function improved, hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia corrected to normal values and proteinuria decreased to subnephrotic value. We discuss the unusual presentation of this case of primary antiphospholipid syndrome with total unilateral renal thrombosis and nephrotic syndrome that respond to anticoagulant, antihypertensive and corticosteroid therapy.
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ranking = 0.41545031357231
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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4/112. Bilateral renal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis with nephrotic syndrome treated by thrombectomy: case report with 3-year followup.

    A previously healthy 19-year-old woman taking anovulatory medication presented with symptoms of the nephrotic syndrome and lupus erythematosus. diagnosis of inferior vena cava and bilateral renal vein thrombosis was made angiographically. The patient was treated successfully by thrombectomy and anticoagulation, and remains well 3 years later. Laboratory data indicate normal renal function and only mild proteinuria. This is the longest followup of a patient with this entity reported in the literature.
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ranking = 0.98780217424566
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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5/112. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.

    A two and half year-old-male child, known case of steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome presented with fever and vomiting of acute onset. He was diagnosed to have superior sagittal sinus thrombosis on a contrast computerised tomographic scan of brain. Recovery was complete without anticoagulant therapy. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an extremely rare complication of nephrotic syndrome.
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ranking = 1.1368815531496
keywords = thrombosis
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6/112. budd-chiari syndrome and inferior vena cava thrombosis in a nephrotic child.

    We observed budd-chiari syndrome in a boy aged 2 years 6 months with nephrotic syndrome due to hepatic vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis, confirmed by Doppler imaging. Normal values of the routine hemostatic parameters proved that they are of little predictive value for the thrombotic state. Immediate heparin infusion was initiated. High doses of heparin up to 59 IU/kg per hour were required for efficient anticoagulation. A remission of the nephrotic syndrome was achieved with vincristine. Oral anticoagulation with a vitamin k antagonist was continued for 6 months. Doppler imaging then indicated full re-establishment of the blood flow through the affected vessels. The clinical and Doppler data in this case are compatible with acute budd-chiari syndrome due to incomplete outflow obstruction of the hepatic veins and inferior vena cava. The favorable outcome was due to the immediate heparin infusion and prompt remission of the nephrotic syndrome. Doppler imaging was an important tool for non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up.
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ranking = 0.94935683634059
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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7/112. Genitourinary complications of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A 14-year-old African-American girl was diagnosed with antiphospholipid-positive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in July 1994. The course was complicated by nephrotic syndrome, sepsis, hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, saphenous vein thrombosis, cutaneous vasculitis, mesenteric vasculitis, appendicitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and avascular necrosis of the hips. In August 1997, she developed ovarian and fallopian tube complications secondary to SLE. Genitourinary complications of SLE, however, are uncommon, and ovarian vasculitis has not previously been reported as a complication of SLE. This report describes the course of an adolescent patient with SLE and focuses specifically on her genitourinary complications.
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ranking = 0.22597005471405
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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8/112. nephrotic syndrome in Hodgkin's disease. Evidence for pathogenesis alternative to immune complex deposition.

    The nephrotic syndrome has been reported to occur in patients with Hodgkin's disease even in the absence of amyloidosis, tumor infiltration of renal vein thrombosis. Three patients are presented with Hodgkin's disease and the nephrotic syndrome whose renal biopsy specimens studied with light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were compatible with "lipoid nephrosis" (minimal change disease). A review of the literature reveals 35 patients with Hodgkin's disease and the nephrotic syndrome. Renal tissue was available for examination in only 27 patients. The majority of patients apparently had glomerular alterations consistent with lipoid nephrosis. The nephrotic syndrome in most of these patients remitted with a variety of methods of therapy (including excision, irradiation, prednisone and cyclophosphamide) and tended to relapse with a recurrence of Hodgkin's disease. In three-fourths of the patients with Hodgkin's disease and the nephrotic syndrome, the Hodgkin's disease was of a mixed cellularity type. The etiology of lipoid nephrosis, although unclear, may be a consequence of altered lymphocyte function. Hodgkin's disease is a malignancy involving T lymphocytes, and the nephrotic syndrome occurring in the course of Hodgkin's disease may be a result of an adverse effect of glomeruli by products of tumor lymphocytes rather than of glomerular deposition of immune complexes.
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ranking = 0.22597005471405
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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9/112. Peripheral arterial thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosis and nephrotic syndrome: possible association with protein s deficiency.

    Arterial thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephrotic syndrome have been infrequently reported. A 16-year-old boy with SLE and longstanding nephrotic syndrome presented with peripheral arterial thrombosis when his lupus was at an inactive stage. He did not have antiphospholipid antibodies but had low serum antithrombin iii and protein S levels. We suggest that the thrombotic event is not related to antiphospholipid antibodies but to nephrotic syndrome and possibly to acquired protein s deficiency.
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ranking = 1.1368815531496
keywords = thrombosis
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10/112. Fulminant cerebral infarction in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.

    Fulminant cerebral infarction secondary to arterial thrombosis in adults with nephrotic syndrome is rare. We report a 42 year old male with fulminant right anterior cerebral and middle cerebral artery infarction. Minimal change disease of the kidney was documented by renal biopsy. The possible pathogenesis is discussed and pertinent literature reviewed.
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ranking = 0.18948025885826
keywords = thrombosis
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