Cases reported "Nerve Degeneration"

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1/55. A non-familial Huntington's disease patient with grumose degeneration in the dentate nucleus.

    We report a non-familial Huntington's disease (HD) patient presenting with increased levels of protein and IgG in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), antineuronal antibody in his serum and CSF, Purkinje cell and granule cell degeneration in the cerebellum, and grumose degeneration in the dentate nucleus, in addition to typical HD findings. This patient showed an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene, and provides new information on the clinical and neuropathologic varieties of HD.
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2/55. Nigral degeneration in a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: evidence of Lewy body-like and skein-like inclusions in the pigmented neurons.

    This report describes a 58-year-old man who exhibited the clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at autopsy, 1 year after clinical onset of the disease. Neuropathologically, in addition to degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, marked degeneration of the substantia nigra with the appearance of Lewy body-like inclusions (LBI) and skein-like inclusions (SLI) were observed in the remaining pigmented neurons. An immunohistochemical study revealed that both LBI and SLI were immunopositive for ubiquitin. Ultrastructurally, LBI in the substantia nigra were composed of randomly arranged 15 nm thick tubular structures associated with ribosome-like granules, similar to those of LBI in the lower motor neurons. SLI in the substantia nigra were composed of curved bundles of 5 nm thick filaments (thinner than those comprising the SLI in the lower motor neurons). We believe that degeneration of the substantia nigra could be one of the degenerative processes involved in ALS.
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3/55. Corticobasal degeneration: an autopsy case clinically diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy.

    We report an autopsy case diagnosed clinically as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but neuropathologically confirmed as corticobasal degeneration (CBD). A 56-year-old Japanese woman slowly developed parkinsonism, dementia, character change, followed by vertical gaze palsy and dystonia. Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cerebral atrophy with severe shrinkage of the brain stem tegmentum. The SPECT images using 123I-IMP disclosed symmetrical hypoperfusion in the frontal lobes. She died of respiratory failure at the age of 71.Gross inspection of the brain showed diffuse, symmetrical atrophy of the cerebrum and marked atrophy of the Luysian body, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and nuclei of the brain stem tegmentum. Microscopically, neuronal loss and fibrillary gliosis were observed in the Luysian body, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and nuclei of the brain stem tegmentum. The cerebellar dentate nucleus showed mild neuronal loss with some grumose degeneration. neurofibrillary tangles were found only in the Luysian body, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei, whilst tau-positive inclusions were observed more extensively. Astrocytic plaques and swollen achromatic neurones were found in the postcentral gyrus. There were no tuft-shaped astrocytes in the brain. The clinicopathological similarities and differences between PSP and CBD are discussed.
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4/55. Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with onset in bulbar sign, benign clinical course, and Bunina bodies: a clinical, genetic, and pathological study of a Japanese family.

    We report a Japanese family with autosomal dominant adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) with onset in the bulbar musculature, clinically benign course, absence of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD 1) gene mutation, and many Bunina bodies, in addition to involvement of the upper and lower motor neurons. The proband was a Japanese woman who was 66 years old at the time of death. family history disclosed five patients with FALS over three generations. She developed dysarthria at age 57, followed by dysphagia, muscle weakness of the upper extremities, and difficulty in respiration. She could walk without support until her death. The elder sister of the proband developed dysarthria at age 48 and died at age 58. A genetic study of the nephew of the proband showed the absence of a mutation in the SOD 1 gene. Neuropathological examination of the proband disclosed neuronal loss in the upper and lower motor neurons, and numerous Bunina bodies in the lower motor neurons without Lewy body-like inclusions or ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions. No degeneration of the Clarke's column, middle root zone of the posterior column, or posterior spinocerebellar tract was present. review of the literature revealed that only patients with FALS with a long survival period of over 5 years had pathological findings consistent with FALS with posterior column involvement. This study contributes to the elucidation of the clinicopathological heterogeneity of FALS.
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5/55. Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia with hypoplastic corpus callosum, multisystem degeneration and ubiquitinated eosinophilic granules.

    We report a 48-year-old woman with familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) showing mental retardation, amyotrophy and sensory disturbance. Her parents were second cousins and there were two other affected siblings in the family. autopsy revealed degenerative lesions characterized by neuronal loss and gliosis in the upper and lower motor neuron systems, thalamus, lateral geniculate body, dentate nucleus and posterior column of the spinal cord. The remaining neurons often contained ubiquitinated lipofuscin granules. Although the corpus callosum was severely attenuated, it exhibited well-preserved myelination and only minimal gliosis. In the substantia nigra, the number of pigmented neurons was apparently low, but there was slight gliosis and no extraneuronal free melanin pigment in the background. The neurons in this brain region contained much smaller amounts of melanin pigment than might be expected for the patient's age. These findings suggest that this is an example of a family with autosomal recessive FSP with thin corpus callosum, and that maldevelopment of the corpus callosum and substantia nigra is a characteristic feature of the disease.
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6/55. Bunina body in frontal lobe dementia without clinical manifestations of motor neuron disease.

    We report here an early autopsy case of a 60-year-old woman clinically diagnosed as having frontal lobe dementia without other neurological deficits. Postmortem examination revealed mild spongiosis in layers II and III of the frontal cortex, together with depletion of melanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra. In addition to ubiquitin-positive neurites, ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions, which were previously considered to be a hallmark for motor neuron disease with or without dementia, were identified in neurons of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and of the temporal cortex. Although the patient lacked lower motor symptoms, the presence of Bunina bodies identified in the hypoglossal nuclei further supported the relationship of this case to motor neuron disease. Bunina bodies might be present in some cases of frontal lobe dementia. The presence or absence of Bunina bodies should be scrutinized even in cases without motor symptoms. In this case, creatine kinase of skeletal muscle origin was elevated, which might also be a potential indicator that suggests subclinical involvement of lower motor neurons.
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7/55. Anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in a man with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) with anti-Yo antibodies is almost always associated with ovarian and breast cancer. We describe a man with anti-Yo-positive PCD and gastric adenocarcinoma. The tumor cells were labeled with anti-Yo antibodies by immunohistochemistry. High serum titers of anti-Yo antibodies were found before surgery and decreased 6 months after resection of the tumor. The expression of Yo antigens by the tumor and the decrease in anti-Yo antibody titers after its removal suggest that the immune response against the purkinje cells of the cerebellum was triggered by the tumor.
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8/55. Rasmussen encephalitis associated with segmental vitiligo of the scalp: clinicopathologic report.

    A 3-year-old boy with segmental vitiligo, poliosis, and alopecia over the right side of the scalp developed epilepsia partialis continua involving the left side of the body and progressive atrophy of the right cerebral hemisphere. There was a right ear dysacusia and a perilimbal vitiligo associated with an area of iris depigmentation in the right eye. Pleocytosis and hypergammaglobulin were detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Because medical treatment that included phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, benzodiazepines, corticosteroids, gamma-globulin, and a ketogenic diet was ineffective, he underwent a right hemispherectomy. Neuropathologic examination showed a widespread scattered inflammatory process with numerous microglial nodules and perivascular lymphocytic cuffing associated with degenerative changes with severe neuronal loss, loosening of the neuropil, and microcystic changes with tissue collapse. The coexistence of vitiligo and possibly Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in this child reinforces the autoimmune theory as the pathogenesis of Rasmussen syndrome.
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9/55. Neuropathology of auditory agnosia following bilateral temporal lobe lesions: a case study.

    Our patient was first diagnosed with auditory agnosia following his second cerebral vascular accident (CVA) in 1975 when he was 37 years old. Comprehensive follow-up examinations of auditory function were periodically conducted until his sudden death 15 years later. His brain was studied postmortem for neuropathology. Initial pure-tone audiometry revealed moderate sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and mild sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear. However, repeated pure-tone audiometry revealed that thresholds became progressively poorer over time, bilaterally. Speech audiometry of both ears consistently revealed that the patient was unable to discriminate any monosyllabic words (i.e. speech intelligibility scores were 0%, bilaterally). In general, speech and hearing tests demonstrated that he could not comprehend spoken words, but could comprehend written commands and gestures. Postmortem neuropathological study of the left hemisphere revealed total defect and neuronal loss of the superior temporal gyrus, including Heschl's gyrus, and total gliosis of the medial geniculate body. In the right hemisphere, examination revealed subcortical necrosis, gliosis in the centre of the superior temporal gyrus and partial gliosis of the medial geniculate body. The pathological examination supports clinical results in which the patient's imperception of speech sounds, music and environmental sounds could be caused by progressive degeneration of bilateral medial geniculate bodies.
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10/55. Subcortical dementia associated with striking enlargement of the Virchow-Robin spaces and transneural degeneration of the left mammillo-thalamic tract.

    We report a case of subcortical dementia in a 68-year-old woman. MR examination of the patient's brain revealed two types of alterations as a possible cause of the dementia, both anomalous in respect of their entity and incidence: the first was a striking enlargement of the Virchow-Robin spaces, and the second an anterograde transneural degeneration of the left mammillo-thalamic tract and mammillary body secondary to a lacunar infarction of the ipsilateral anterior thalamus.
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