Cases reported "Nerve Degeneration"

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1/46. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis in acute ataxic neuropathy.

    Acute ataxic neuropathy is characterized by sensory ataxia and areflexia. There is no established treatment. We tried immunoadsorption plasmapheresis 15 days after the onset for a 46-year-old woman suffering from this neuropathy. She could not walk even with assistance because of sensory ataxia. A sural nerve biopsy revealed active axonal degeneration and loss of myelinated fibers. We tried 5 sessions of plasmapheresis during 2 weeks. She could walk with assistance 12 days after the beginning of the plasmapheresis treatment. It took 3 months for her to be able to walk over 5 m without assistance, and she had severe sensory ataxia over a 17 month follow-up period. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis started within 2 weeks after the onset of acute ataxic neuropathy may have beneficial effects if the axonal degeneration is mild. The plasmapheresis, however, should be continued for a longer period. A double blind study is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of this treatment on acute ataxic neuropathy.
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keywords = ataxia
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2/46. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration with Balint's syndrome.

    Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is a neurodegenerative dementia characterized by asymmetric parkinsonism, ideomotor apraxia, myoclonus, dystonia, and the alien hand syndrome. This report describes a patient with CBGD who developed Balint's syndrome with simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia, and optic ataxia.
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keywords = ataxia
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3/46. alpha-synuclein accumulation in a case of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 (NBIA-1, formerly Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) with widespread cortical and brainstem-type lewy bodies.

    We studied a 27-year-old woman who died after a 6-year history of progressive dementia, dystonia, ataxia, apraxia, spasticity, choreoathetosis, visual and auditory hallucinations, and optic atrophy. magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased intensity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and dentate nuclei in T2-weighted images, supporting the clinical diagnosis of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1 (NBIA-1; formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). At autopsy the brain showed mild frontotemporal atrophy and discoloration of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticularis. Histologically, features typical of NBIA-1 were found including widespread axonal spheroids and large deposits of iron pigment in the discolored regions. Additionally, excessive numbers of lewy bodies (LBs) were found throughout all examined brain stem and cortical regions. LBs of both types, as well as Lewy neurites in this case of NBIA-1, were strongly labeled by antibodies against alpha-synuclein. These findings give further evidence that accumulation of alpha-synuclein is generally associated with LB formation, i.e., in Parkinson's disease, dementia with lewy bodies and NBIA-1. The case presented here is particularly notable for its high number of LBs in all areas of the cerebral cortex.
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keywords = ataxia
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4/46. Asymmetrical temporal lobe atrophy with massive neuronal inclusions in multiple system atrophy.

    This report concerns a rare association of asymmetrical temporal lobe atrophy with multiple system atrophy (MSA). A 53-year-old Japanese woman developed cerebellar ataxia and parkinsonism and was diagnosed as olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA). This patient showed forgetfulness and subsequent disorientation even in the early stage of the disease. She fell into a decorticate state at the age of 64, and died a year later. The autopsy showed MSA with asymmetrical atrophy of temporal lobes, intraneuronal globular inclusions mostly confined to the hippocampus, amygdaloid nucleus, and most abundant in the granule cells in the dentate fascia. These inclusions were intensely argyrophilic and expressed marked immunoreactivity to ubiquitin, but not to neurofilament (NF), tau and paired helical filaments (PHF). Ultrastructurally, they were composed of scattered short filamentous structures of 15 to 30 nm in diameter, ribosome-like granules, mitochondria and lipofuscin. The lack of immunoreactivity against tau, NF and PHF suggests that the inclusions are distinct from Pick bodies. To our knowledge, MSA in association with asymmetrical temporal lobe atrophy with the present neuronal inclusions has not been reported. This case is distinct from MSA combined with atypical Pick's disease in the distribution and immunohistochemical properties of neuronal inclusions, and may present a new variant of MSA since the neuronal inclusions are similar, in many respects, to those of neuronal inclusions reported in MSA. Globular inclusions are also discussed in variants of Pick's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
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ranking = 1.4624382215896
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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5/46. Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome as a human example for accelerated cochlear nerve degeneration.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that includes microcephaly, severe mental retardation, and multiple congenital anomalies. Otologic findings are usually limited to descriptions of the auricles. PATIENT AND methods: The authors report inner ear histopathologic findings of a deceased 13-year-old patient with COFS. A histologic study of the inner ear in COFS syndrome has not yet been described. This patient was documented as having a profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss at the age of 2 years. RESULTS: Histologic evaluation revealed accelerated neural and neuronal degeneration at the cochlear and retrocochlear levels. Remaining myelinated nerve fibers, counted in the spiral lamina, had degenerated by up to 97% when compared with normal innervation densities. Afferent nerve fibers innervating inner hair cells were completely absent, whereas medial efferent fibers to outer hair cells were found. vestibular nerve fibers were less affected. CONCLUSION: The authors report inner ear findings that differ from animal models of primary cochlear neural degeneration and that resemble the pattern of hereditary cochlear nerve degeneration reported in Friedreich's ataxia.
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keywords = ataxia
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6/46. Hereditary neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease with autonomic failure and cerebellar degeneration.

    BACKGROUND: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a multiple-system degeneration, occurs usually as a sporadic disorder with onset in childhood. The disease has been found in monozygotic twins and in siblings. In 2 previously described families, the disorder has affected 2 generations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical, anatomical, and electrophysiological characteristics of NIID that affect the central nervous system and the central and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system in 2 successive generations of a family. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. patients: A 53-year old woman and her sons, aged 28 and 25 years. Symptoms began in childhood in 2 of the 3 cases, and consisted of urinary and fecal incontinence, erectile dysfunction in the men, and recurrent orthostatic hypotension. methods: We used results of clinical neurological evaluations; cranial magnetic resonance imaging; skeletal muscle and sphincter electromyography (EMG); peripheral nerve conduction and bulbocavernosus reflex studies; autonomic function tests; brainstem, visual, somatosensory, and motor evoked potentials; auditory and vestibular testing; metabolic and molecular genetic testing; and muscle and rectal biopsy with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found variable degrees of ocular dysmetria in 2 cases, ataxic dysarthria and limb ataxia in 1, and hyperreflexia in 2. magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebellar atrophy in all 3 cases and diffuse cerebral cortical atrophy in 1. Results of peripheral nerve conduction studies were normal. Sphincter EMG findings were abnormal in 2 of the 3 cases, and results of autonomic function tests were abnormal in the same 2. The EMG in 1 case revealed a chronic neurogenic pattern in the distal limb muscles. Metabolic and molecular genetic testing revealed no abnormal findings. Results of the muscle biopsy were negative, but results of the rectal biopsy revealed eosinophilic ubiquitinated intranuclear inclusions in neurons. CONCLUSION: Transmission of NIID in 2 generations presenting with autonomic failure and cerebellar ataxia was hereditary.
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ranking = 1.7957715549229
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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7/46. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1: new leads for an earlier diagnosis.

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 is a rare disease characterized by pontocerebellar hypoplasia and anterior horn cell degeneration. The oldest reported child died at the age of 26 months. Two siblings were diagnosed with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 after the death of the second sibling at 40 months of age from respiratory failure and the unexpected finding of anterior horn cell degeneration on her autopsy. The older sibling was a boy who was labeled as having cerebral palsy. He died at 14 months of age from pneumonia following a clinical course similar to his sister's, who was born 5 years after his death. Both siblings had significant global developmental delay with axial and peripheral hypotonia initially. Peripheral hypertonia with brisk reflexes developed later but were absent prior to death. Extensive investigations in the second sibling ruled out known metabolic (including congenital disorders of glycosylation) and mitochondrial diseases using skin fibroblast cultures and enzyme analysis. genetic testing for Friedreich's ataxia; neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP); spinal muscular atrophy; and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 gene abnormalities was negative. The elecroretinogram showed a previously unreported finding of abnormal and progressive rod/cone response. Our cases provide clinical and previously unreported electroretinographic evidence for neurodegeneration in pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 and call for the expansion of the disease phenotype.
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ranking = 2.1291048882563
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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8/46. Pathological study of corticospinal-tract degeneration in Friedreich's ataxia.

    The pattern of fibre degeneration in the lateral corticospinal tract (LCST) was studied in a case of Friedreich's ataxia (FA). There was preferential involvement of the lateral area of the LCST in the cervical spinal cord. More caudally, the degeneration involved the entire area of the LCST and did not reveal a medial to lateral gradient of involvement. We suggest that this distinctive pattern of tract degeneration is a consequence of the somatotopic organization of the LCST, with the dying-back degeneration preferentially affecting those LCST fibers that extend to the lumbo-sacral spinal cord. This pattern of tract degeneration may be a useful morphological marker of dying-back degeneration in corticospinal tracts.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = ataxia
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9/46. Degeneration of the inferior olive in spinocerebellar ataxia 6 may depend on disease duration: report of two autopsy cases and statistical analysis of autopsy cases reported to date.

    This report concerns a clinicopathological study of two autopsied patients with spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA6), and a statistical analysis between neuronal loss of the inferior olive and disease duration of 15 SCA6 autopsy cases reported to date, including the two cases reported in this study. Cases 1 and 2 came from independent Japanese families. Case 1 developed gait disturbance at age 35 years and died at age 78 years; she had a CAG-repeat expansion of the SCA6 gene (25/13). Case 2 presented with gait disturbance at age 68 years and died at age 78 years; he had an expanded CAG-repeat of the SCA6 gene (22/13). Neuropathological examination of both cases disclosed not only neuronal loss of the purkinje cells and inferior olive, but also some unnoticed features, including cactus-like expansion of the dendrite of purkinje cells and relative preservation of Golgi cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum. Exploratory statistical analysis between 11 SCA6 autopsy cases with neuronal loss in the inferior olive (average disease duration: 27 years) and four SCA6 autopsy cases without neuronal loss in the olive (average disease duration: 14.5 years) was investigated by Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival and log-rank test, retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival revealed an obvious difference between the two groups. survival of 10 years after the disease onset was 90.9% in the former 11 SCA6 autopsy cases, but was 50% in the latter four SCA6 autopsy cases. Furthermore, a log-rank test on the two groups disclosed a significant difference (P=0.0450). We postulate that the neuronal loss of the inferior olive in SCA6 may depend on disease duration.
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ranking = 7.3121911079481
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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10/46. Fatal familial insomnia: a model disease in sleep physiopathology.

    Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) is characterized by loss of sleep, oneiric stupor with autonomic/motor hyperactivity and somato-motor abnormalities (pyramidal signs, myoclonus, dysarthria/dysphagia, ataxia). Positon emission tomography (PET) disclosed thalamic hypometabolism and milder involvement of the cortex; neuropathology severe neuronal loss in the thalamic nuclei variably affecting the caudate, gyrus cinguli and fronto-temporal cortices. Genetic analysis disclosed a mutation in the PRNP gene and FFI was transmitted to experimental animals, thus classifying FFI within the prion diseases. Rare Sporadic Fatal Insomnia (SFI) cases occur without PRNP mutation but with features similar to FFI. FFI represents a model disease for the study of sleep-wake regulation: (I) the profound thalamic hypometabolism/atrophy associated with lack of sleep spindles and delta sleep implicate the thalamus in the origin of slow wave sleep (SWS); (II) loss of SWS is associated with marked autonomic and motor hyperactivity; termed 'agrypnia excitata', this association has been proposed as a useful clinical concept representative of thalamo-limbic dysfunction; (III) lack of SWS occurs with substantial preservation of stage 1 NREM sleep, implying that the latter has mechanisms different from SWS and unaffected by thalamic atrophy; accordingly, conflating stage 1 NREM with SWS into NREM sleep is inappropriate.
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keywords = ataxia
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