Cases reported "Nerve Degeneration"

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1/245. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis in acute ataxic neuropathy.

    Acute ataxic neuropathy is characterized by sensory ataxia and areflexia. There is no established treatment. We tried immunoadsorption plasmapheresis 15 days after the onset for a 46-year-old woman suffering from this neuropathy. She could not walk even with assistance because of sensory ataxia. A sural nerve biopsy revealed active axonal degeneration and loss of myelinated fibers. We tried 5 sessions of plasmapheresis during 2 weeks. She could walk with assistance 12 days after the beginning of the plasmapheresis treatment. It took 3 months for her to be able to walk over 5 m without assistance, and she had severe sensory ataxia over a 17 month follow-up period. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis started within 2 weeks after the onset of acute ataxic neuropathy may have beneficial effects if the axonal degeneration is mild. The plasmapheresis, however, should be continued for a longer period. A double blind study is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of this treatment on acute ataxic neuropathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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2/245. Axonal degeneration of peripheral facial nerve in a patient with progressive hemifacial atrophy.

    We report a case of a 23-year-old woman with progressive hemifacial atrophy. She showed an atrophic change on the left side of her face for 8 years. A skin biopsy obtained from the lesion revealed the fibrotic changes in the deep dermis and adipose tissue with infiltrations of lymphocytes and plasma cells. She underwent the augmentation using a deepithelialized anteromedial thigh flap with endoscopic assistance. A specimen of the peripheral facial nerve taken from the region adjacent to the skin lesion during the operation showed atrophy of neurofibers with vacuole degeneration. On an electron microscopic examination, a high degree of degeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated axons was observed. These findings may provide direct evidence that atrophic changes of nerve fibers are closely related with the pathology of this disease.
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ranking = 0.5017369825906
keywords = peripheral, nerve
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3/245. Clinicopathological study of an autopsy case with sensory-dominant polyradiculoneuropathy with antiganglioside antibodies.

    A previously reported patient presenting sensory-dominant neuropathy with antiganglioside antibodies, bound preferentially to polysialogangliosides including GD1b, was autopsied. While axonal degeneration was predominant in the sural nerve, many demyelinated fibers were present in the spinal roots. Dorsal roots had undergone significant damage. These pathological findings were well correlated with the electrophysiological results showing decreased F-wave conduction velocities and conduction blocks in motor nerves and decreased or absent sensory action potentials in sensory nerves, with distribution of GD1b in nerve tissues such as dorsal root ganglia and paranodal myelin in the ventral and dorsal roots.
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ranking = 0.62501501242798
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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4/245. Evidence of active nerve cell degeneration in the substantia nigra of humans years after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exposure.

    This report provides the first detailed neuropathological study of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism in humans. All 3 subjects self-administered the drug under the impression it was "synthetic heroin" and subsequently developed severe and unremitting parkinsonism, which was L-dopa responsive, at least in the earlier stages of illness. survival times ranged from 3 to 16 years. Neuropathological examination revealed moderate to severe depletion of pigmented nerve cells in the substantia nigra in each case. lewy bodies were not present. In patients 1 and 2, there was gliosis and clustering of microglia around nerve cells. Patient 3 had a similar picture and also showed large amounts of extraneuronal melanin. These findings are indicative of active, ongoing nerve cell loss, suggesting that a time-limited insult to the nigrostriatal system can set in motion a self-perpetuating process of neurodegeneration. Although the mechanism by which this occurs is far from clear, the precedent set by the cases could have broad implications for human neurodegenerative disease.
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ranking = 3.1136887656065E-5
keywords = nerve
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5/245. Following the clues to neuropathic pain. Distribution and other leads reveal the cause and the treatment approach.

    Neuropathic pain can seem enigmatic at first because it can last indefinitely and often a cause is not evident. However, heightened awareness of typical characteristics, such as the following, makes identification fairly easy: The presence of certain accompanying conditions (e.g., diabetes, hiv or herpes zoster infection, multiple sclerosis) pain described as shooting, stabbing, lancinating, burning, or searing pain worse at night pain following anatomic nerve distribution pain in a numb or insensate site The presence of allodynia Neuropathic pain responds poorly to standard pain therapies and usually requires specialized medications (e.g., anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, opioid analgesics) for optimal control. Successful pain control is enhanced with use of a systematic approach consisting of disease modification, local or regional measures, and systemic therapy.
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ranking = 4.4481268080092E-6
keywords = nerve
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6/245. Accumulation of neurofilaments and SOD1-immunoreactive products in a patient with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with I113T SOD1 mutation.

    OBJECTIVE: To report neuropathologic features of argyrophilic inclusions in the anterior horn cells, motor cortex Betz cells, and neurons of the medullary reticular formation, spinal posterior horn, and Clarke column in a Japanese case of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with I113T substitution in exon 4 of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. methods AND RESULTS: These inclusions were stained pale pink on the hematoxylin-eosin stain and dark on the Bielschowsky stain. They were positive for antibodies to phosphorylated neurofilaments, ubiquitin, and SOD1. On electron microscopy, they consisted of abundant intermediate filaments of 10 to 20 nm in diameter with disordered array indicating neurofilaments. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the I113T mutation induces accumulation of neurofilaments and SOD1 in the central nervous system neurons.
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ranking = 0.017806595942608
keywords = nervous system
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7/245. Clinical and cerebral FDG PET scan in a patient with Krabbe's disease.

    A 2-year, 6-month-old Saudi male with infantile Krabbe's disease was studied with fluorine-18-labeled-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan. The patient presented with a gradual loss of developmental milestones, irritability, and crying. At the advanced stage of the disease, he developed tonic-clonic seizures and became a microcephalic, extremely irritable, blind, spastic quadriplegic child, with no deep tendon reflexes. Laboratory studies revealed normal blood chemistry, muscle enzymes, very long chain fatty acids, and acylcarnitines. No abnormal urinary organic acids were detected. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was increased. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed mild brain atrophy and white matter disease mainly in the centrum semiovale. electroretinography was normal; however, electroencephalography and visual-evoked potentials were abnormal. Peripheral nerve conduction studies documented a demyelinating neuropathic process. The FDG PET study of the brain demonstrated a marked decrease in the metabolism of the left cerebral cortex and no uptake in the caudate heads. Normal glucose uptake was observed in the thalami, lentiform nuclei, and cerebellum. The patient did not present for subsequent clinic visits and is presumed dead.
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ranking = 4.4481268080092E-6
keywords = nerve
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8/245. guillain-barre syndrome occurring in two women after ketoacidosic comatose state disclosing an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    We report two women who presented with a guillain-barre syndrome just after a ketoacidosic comatose state disclosing an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. One had characteristic clinical signs and the other had major motor involvement. At neurophysiologic investigations, one had typical demyelinating neuropathy whereas the second had mainly axonal degeneration. At ultrastructural examination of a peripheral nerve biopsy, features of macrophage-associated demyelination were present in both nerve specimens, thus confirming the diagnosis of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, i.e., guillain-barre syndrome. Prominent axonal involvement was also present in the motor nerves of the second patient. insulin therapy had to be permanently continued and these two cases are quite different from the transient diabetes sometimes observed in certain cases of guillain-barre syndrome. Both the latter and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus probably have auto-immune mechanisms. It is likely that in our two patients both auto-immune diseases were triggered by a common event. Such cases of guillain-barre syndrome have to be distinguished from other acute diabetic neuropathies.
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ranking = 0.54983846456652
keywords = peripheral nerve, neuropathy, peripheral, nerve
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9/245. Sensory potential can be preserved in severe common peroneal neuropathy.

    Neuropathy of Common peroneal nerve (CPN) is a frequent clinical condition, generally caused by compression at the fibula head. Three neurophysiological patterns were described: 1) segmental demyelination with conduction block; 2) axonal damage with loss of motor units and sensory potential; 3) a mixed pattern. We report 5 patients with foot drop in whom CPN neuropathy was identified. In 3 in spite of impressive abnormalities in various motor branches and fascicles of the nerve, the peroneus nerve sensory potential remained well preserved. Focal neuropathies can be remarkably selective in terms of motor and sensory deficits, the reason can rely on a different location of the fibres or be related to a distinct histological-biochemical constitution. A preserved SPSP should not exclude a CPN neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.75000556015851
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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10/245. Inexcitability of nerves in a fulminant case of guillain-barre syndrome.

    A 45-year-old woman presented with a recent sensorimotor deficiency in all 4 limbs, and the next day she was totally paralyzed. A slight motor improvement began on day 27. The cerebrospinal fluid had normal cellularity, but the protein varied from 90 mg/dL on the first day to 800 mg/dL on day 15, and then 290 mg/dL on day 33. Electrophysiologic studies performed on days 15 and 23 revealed a universal peripheral nerve inexcitability. A superficial peroneal nerve biopsy was performed on day 23. Nine fascicles were examined on semi-thin sections and myelinated fiber damage varied greatly from one fascicle to another. At ultrastructural examination, certain axons were severely damaged, but the others were quite well preserved and were naked or wrapped in a myelin sheath presenting a multivesicular degeneration. A few fibers had a better-preserved myelin sheath that was sometimes dissociated by elongated processes from an invading histiocyte. Six cases of fulminant guillain-barre syndrome with inexcitability of nerves and ultrastructural examination of nerve fragments have been reported. Electrophysiologic study is often ambiguous and cannot determine the precise origin of such an axonal degeneration. Therefore, ultrastructural analysis of a nerve biopsy is mandatory in this setting.
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ranking = 0.29986626535907
keywords = peripheral nerve, peripheral, nerve
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