Cases reported "Nerve Degeneration"

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11/13. A case of primary progressive aphasia with abnormally ubiquitinated neurites in the cerebral cortex.

    We report the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a patient with primary progressive aphasia and abnormally ubiquitinated neurites in the cerebral cortex. Neuropathological examination showed severe neuronal loss and astrocytosis with a spongy change in the frontal cortex and neostriatum. immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin antibody showed many immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in the superficial layer of the affected cortices and putamen. Those neurites were neither argentophilic nor stained with other antibodies against neurofilament, tau, or microtubule-associated protein-2. There were no neuropathological changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-ubiquitin antibody showed inclusions in the dendrites, consisting mainly of granular and filamentous material. These pathological features, unusual in primary progressive aphasia, indicate the neuropathological heterogeneity of this disease condition.
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keywords = putamen
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12/13. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with numerous axonal spheroids in the corticospinal tract and massive degeneration of the cortex.

    A 53-year-old woman developed bulbar palsy, spastic quadriplegia, amyotrophy, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and thereafter her condition was managed with mechanical ventilation for 1 year. Her total clinical course was 6 years. The autopsy examination revealed neuronal loss with reactive astrocytosis in the precentral cortex, thalamus, mammillary body, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra, in addition to degeneration of lower motor neurons, some of which contained Bunina bodies. Along the corticospinal tract, there were severe axonal loss and numerous axonal spheroids, which were positive for phosphorylated neurofilament, ubiquitin, and synaptophysin, and lipid-laden macrophages in the centrum semiovale to the crus cerebri. Ballooned neurons, which were positive for phosphorylated neurofilament, were occasionally seen in the frontal cortex. Although in the common form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) both upper and lower motor neurons are mainly involved, the corticospinal tract degeneration cannot be traced rostral to the pons. The noteworthy features in our patient were the precentral cortical degeneration and axonal spheroids in the corticospinal tract rostral to the pons. It remains unclear why axonal spheroids in the corticospinal tract and precentral cortical degeneration are not observed in most ALS cases. Whether their development depends on the clinical duration, mechanical ventilator management, or some other factors remains an open question.
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keywords = putamen
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13/13. Increased basal ganglia iron in striatonigral degeneration: in vivo estimation with magnetic resonance.

    BACKGROUND: As many as 20% of individuals with the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) do not have the characteristic neuropathologic features of PD at post mortem. The striatonigral degeneration (SND) subtype of multiple system atrophy is one of the categories of pathology which may be incorrectly diagnosed as PD on the basis of clinical presentation. SND may be associated with increased iron deposition in the putamen which can be detected with magnetic resonance imaging. methods: We have estimated regional brain iron content in a patient with probable SND, using a novel imaging method developed in our laboratory, and have compared the results in this patient to those which we have previously reported in patients with PD and in age-matched controls. RESULTS: We observed that putamenal iron content was increased in our SND patient, beyond the 95% confidence limit for inclusion in the PD group, even when considering clinical severity. In contrast, pallidal and thalamic iron were within the PD range. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of increased putamenal iron content may be a useful adjunctive investigative procedure in patients with suspected SND.
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keywords = putamen
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