Cases reported "Nerve Degeneration"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/81. A non-familial Huntington's disease patient with grumose degeneration in the dentate nucleus.

    We report a non-familial Huntington's disease (HD) patient presenting with increased levels of protein and IgG in his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), antineuronal antibody in his serum and CSF, Purkinje cell and granule cell degeneration in the cerebellum, and grumose degeneration in the dentate nucleus, in addition to typical HD findings. This patient showed an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene, and provides new information on the clinical and neuropathologic varieties of HD.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/81. KP1 expression of ghost Pick bodies, amyloid P-positive astrocytes and selective nigral degeneration in early onset Picks disease.

    We present a patient with early-onset Pick's disease in which selective nigral degeneration, KP1 expression of ghost Pick bodies and amyloid P-positive astrocytes were found. We also review the literature on early-onset Pick's disease. A 34-year-old man showed personality change including stereotypical behavior. muscle rigidity and spasticity developed later, and he died twelve years after the onset of his illness. The brain showed lobar cerebral atrophy prominent in the temporal lobe, and to a lesser degree in the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex. The substantia nigra displayed profound degeneration whereas the head of the caudate nucleus and the putamen were not so seriously affected because the neurons were preserved and only slight astrocytic proliferation was seen. Many Pick bodies were found in the hippocampal formation, and ballooned neurons (Pick cells) were dispersed throughout the cerebral cortex, subcortical grey matter and hippocampal formation. The affected white matter exhibited severe fibrillary gliosis, and numerous astrocytes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and microglial cells positive for CR3/43 were found in the atrophied cortical lesions. The intraneuronal Pick bodies expressed ubiquitin, neurofilament and tau, and KP1 distinctly stained ghost Pick bodies. Tau-positive astrocytes were found in the striatum, hippocampal formation, pontine tegmentum, substantia nigra and affected frontotemporal cortices. These astrocytes were also positive for amyloid P. Extensive search of the literature on early-onset Pick's disease disclosed only a few cases with selective nigral degeneration, and we failed to find any differences in duration, progression of the illness and the extent of subcortical gray matter involvement between cases of early-onset and presenile onset of Pick' s disease. We conclude that the striatopallidal and nigral system can be affected independently in Pick's disease and report new immunohistochemical findings.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/81. Parkinsonism, dementia and vertical gaze palsy in a Guamanian with atypical neuroglial degeneration.

    A 58-year-old Chamorro female patient, who died in 1993, was examined clinicopathologically. At the age of 51, she suffered from hemiparkinsonism, then bradykinesia, rigidity without tremor, and dementia. Extrapyramidal symptoms developed, and at the age of 57, vertical gaze palsy was noted. The clinical diagnosis was parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) with vertical gaze palsy. The brain showed atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes, and the atrophy was accentuated in the dentate gyrus, Ammon's horn and parahippocampal gyrus. The basal ganglia, thalamus and midbrain were moderately atrophic. The substantia nigra and locus ceruleus were completely depigmented. Numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were seen in the subiculum and amygdaloid nucleus. Many NFTs were evident in the parahippocampal gyrus, lateral occipitotemporal gyrus, insula, Sommer sector, basal nucleus of meynert, lateral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and brain stem, and several were observed in the globus pallidus and hypothalamus. The Sommer sector, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus and basal nucleus of meynert showed severe loss of neurons, and a moderate loss of neurons was exhibited by the globus pallidus. These findings were apparently consistent with those associated with PDC. However, in this patient, severe neuronal loss was seen in the subthalamic nucleus and lateral nucleus of the thalamus, and grumose degeneration, which has not previously been reported in PDC, was seen in the dentate nucleus. In addition, many tufted astrocytes, which have been reported to occur in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and postencephalitic parkinsonism, but scarcely observed in PDC, were present. Furthermore, astrocytic plaques, which have been considered as a specific finding of corticobasal degeneration (CBD), were observed in the cerebral cortex. On the other hand, granular hazy astrocytic inclusions, previously reported to occur in PDC, were not seen. Chromatolytic neurons were not observed. The question thus arises as to whether it is appropriate to consider this patient as having suffered from a combination of PDC, PSP and CBD. From the view points of absence of granular hazy astrocytic inclusions and chromatolytic neurons, and of tufted astrocytes in the neostriatum, it is conceivable that this patient is a case of a new disease entity.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 20.500126247194
keywords = thalamic nucleus, nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/81. Intramedullary schwannoma of the spinal cord. A case report and review of the literature.

    A 9-year-old boy presented with the numbness in both arms and hands, and neck stiffness. On examination, he had a slight quadriparesis and restricted neck movements. There were no signs of von Recklinghausen's disease. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan disclosed a gadolinium enhanced intramedullary tumor located at C6-T1 associated with syringomyelia. C6-T1 laminectomies were performed and the intramedullary tumor was totally removed by a microsurgical technique. Postoperative course was uneventful. The pathological examination revealed an intramedullary schwannoma. The occurrence of intramedullary schwannoma in a patient without signs of von Recklinghausen's disease is extremely rare. We have been able to find 57 cases of intramedullary schwannoma reported in the literature. Intramedullary schwannomas are usually seen in males. The ages of the patients ranged from 9 to 75 years (mean 40.44 years). Only 4 cases in the pediatric age group have been reported. The duration of symptoms ranged from 3 months to 20 years (mean 31.03 months). Symptoms and signs varied with the location of tumor. The vertebral levels of intramedullary schwannomas were usually cervical (61%). MRI has been the choice of diagnostic tool in the cases reported since 1986. The majority of the cases showed either a partial or complete recovery in the postoperative period.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2.3210381759039E-5
keywords = group
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/81. Neuronal loss in Onuf's nucleus in three patients with progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Disorders of micturition have been reported only sporadically in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We report the results of a clinicopathological study of 3 patients with a definite diagnosis of PSP at various stages of their illness with sphincter abnormalities. electromyography of the sphincter muscles was performed in all 3 patients and was abnormal in 2. Morphological and morphometric evaluation of Onuf's nucleus in the sacral spinal cord, which is involved in sphincter control, showed severe cell loss, presence of neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, and glial inclusions. We conclude that bladder dysfunction and abnormal sphincter electromyographic results are due to pathological changes in Onuf's nucleus, and we propose that sphincter abnormalities should be included in the list of possible symptoms of PSP.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.2
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/81. Corticobasal degeneration: an autopsy case clinically diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy.

    We report an autopsy case diagnosed clinically as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but neuropathologically confirmed as corticobasal degeneration (CBD). A 56-year-old Japanese woman slowly developed parkinsonism, dementia, character change, followed by vertical gaze palsy and dystonia. Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cerebral atrophy with severe shrinkage of the brain stem tegmentum. The SPECT images using 123I-IMP disclosed symmetrical hypoperfusion in the frontal lobes. She died of respiratory failure at the age of 71.Gross inspection of the brain showed diffuse, symmetrical atrophy of the cerebrum and marked atrophy of the Luysian body, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and nuclei of the brain stem tegmentum. Microscopically, neuronal loss and fibrillary gliosis were observed in the Luysian body, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and nuclei of the brain stem tegmentum. The cerebellar dentate nucleus showed mild neuronal loss with some grumose degeneration. neurofibrillary tangles were found only in the Luysian body, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei, whilst tau-positive inclusions were observed more extensively. Astrocytic plaques and swollen achromatic neurones were found in the postcentral gyrus. There were no tuft-shaped astrocytes in the brain. The clinicopathological similarities and differences between PSP and CBD are discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/81. A histopathological analysis of the human cervical spinal cord in patients with acute traumatic central cord syndrome.

    STUDY DESIGN: We have applied conventional histochemical and morphometric techniques to study the changes within the human spinal 'hand' motor neuron pool after spinal cord injury in patients who presented with acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a reduction of large alpha motor neurons at the C7, C8 and T1 spinal cord levels underlies the mechanism which causes hand dysfunction seen in patients with (ATCCS). BACKGROUND: The etiology of upper extremity weakness in ATCCS is debated and injury and/or degeneration of motor neurons within the central gray matter of the cervical enlargement has been advanced as one potential etiology of hand weakness. methods: The spinal cords of five individuals with documented clinical evidence of ATCCS and three age-matched controls were obtained. The ATCCS spinal cords were divided into acute/sub-acute (two cases) and chronic (three cases) groups depending on the time to death after their injury; the chronic group was further subdivided according to the epicenter of injury. We counted the motor neurons using light microscopy in 10 randomly selected axial sections at the C7, C8 and T1 spinal cord levels for each group. We also analyzed the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts (CST) in all groups for evidence of wallerian degeneration and compared them to controls. RESULTS: A primary injury to the lateral CST was present in each case of ATCCS with evidence of wallerian degeneration distal to the epicenter of injury. There was minimal wallerian degeneration within the ventral corticospinal tracts. In the chronic low cervical injury group, there was a decrease in motor neurons supplying hand musculature relative to the other injury groups where the motor neurons sampled at the time of death were not reduced in number when compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that hand dysfunction in ATCCS can be observed after spinal cord injury without any apparent loss in the number of motor neurons supplying the hand musculature as seen in our acute/sub-acute (n=2) and our chronic high injury (n=1) groups. The motor neuron loss seen in the chronic low level injury was felt to be secondary to the loss of C7, C8, and T1 neurons adjacent to the injury epicenter.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.00018568305407231
keywords = group
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/81. Asymmetrical temporal lobe atrophy with massive neuronal inclusions in multiple system atrophy.

    This report concerns a rare association of asymmetrical temporal lobe atrophy with multiple system atrophy (MSA). A 53-year-old Japanese woman developed cerebellar ataxia and parkinsonism and was diagnosed as olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA). This patient showed forgetfulness and subsequent disorientation even in the early stage of the disease. She fell into a decorticate state at the age of 64, and died a year later. The autopsy showed MSA with asymmetrical atrophy of temporal lobes, intraneuronal globular inclusions mostly confined to the hippocampus, amygdaloid nucleus, and most abundant in the granule cells in the dentate fascia. These inclusions were intensely argyrophilic and expressed marked immunoreactivity to ubiquitin, but not to neurofilament (NF), tau and paired helical filaments (PHF). Ultrastructurally, they were composed of scattered short filamentous structures of 15 to 30 nm in diameter, ribosome-like granules, mitochondria and lipofuscin. The lack of immunoreactivity against tau, NF and PHF suggests that the inclusions are distinct from Pick bodies. To our knowledge, MSA in association with asymmetrical temporal lobe atrophy with the present neuronal inclusions has not been reported. This case is distinct from MSA combined with atypical Pick's disease in the distribution and immunohistochemical properties of neuronal inclusions, and may present a new variant of MSA since the neuronal inclusions are similar, in many respects, to those of neuronal inclusions reported in MSA. Globular inclusions are also discussed in variants of Pick's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/81. Cerebellar cortical degeneration disrupts discrimination learning but not delay or trace classical eyeblink conditioning.

    The authors investigated classical eyeblink conditioning in a relatively rare patient, B.R., with extensive cerebellar cortical atrophy and marked sparing of the dentate nucleus. Patient B.R.'s ability to acquire and extinguish simple associations (delay and trace conditioning tasks) as well as her ability to acquire more complex associations (temporal and simple discrimination tasks) were examined. There are 2 primary findings from this study. First, B.R. showed normal acquisition and extinction in delay and trace conditioning. Second, she demonstrated a complete inability to learn associative discriminations, even in the case of a simple 2-tone discrimination within the context of a delay paradigm. The latter finding was unexpected because of the sparing of her deep cerebellar nuclei. These data suggest that the cerebellar cortex, or pathways traversing cerebellar cortex, play an important role in classical eyeblink discrimination learning.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/81. Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia with hypoplastic corpus callosum, multisystem degeneration and ubiquitinated eosinophilic granules.

    We report a 48-year-old woman with familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) showing mental retardation, amyotrophy and sensory disturbance. Her parents were second cousins and there were two other affected siblings in the family. autopsy revealed degenerative lesions characterized by neuronal loss and gliosis in the upper and lower motor neuron systems, thalamus, lateral geniculate body, dentate nucleus and posterior column of the spinal cord. The remaining neurons often contained ubiquitinated lipofuscin granules. Although the corpus callosum was severely attenuated, it exhibited well-preserved myelination and only minimal gliosis. In the substantia nigra, the number of pigmented neurons was apparently low, but there was slight gliosis and no extraneuronal free melanin pigment in the background. The neurons in this brain region contained much smaller amounts of melanin pigment than might be expected for the patient's age. These findings suggest that this is an example of a family with autosomal recessive FSP with thin corpus callosum, and that maldevelopment of the corpus callosum and substantia nigra is a characteristic feature of the disease.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.2
keywords = nucleus
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Nerve Degeneration'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.