Cases reported "Nerve Sheath Neoplasms"

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1/44. Solitary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the pancreas.

    Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the pancreas are rare. This is a report of a 72 year-old African male who presented with an 8 lb. weight loss and anorexia. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 12 cm mid pancreatic mass. An 85% pancreatectomy (with splenectomy) was performed. Immunohistopathologic and ultrastructural (electron microscopy) evaluation established the schwann cell origin of this neoplasm. The clinical management and pathologic findings are discussed in this report as well as a review of the literature.
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keywords = schwann cell, schwann
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2/44. Cellular schwannoma mimics a sarcoma: an example of a potential pitfall in aspiration cytodiagnosis.

    Cellular schwannoma, a variant of benign schwannoma, is characterized by marked nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia and may be overdiagnosed as a malignancy in fine-needle aspiration specimens. We report the aspiration cytology findings of a case of cellular schwannoma that arose in the parapharyngeal region of a 50-yr-old woman.
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ranking = 1.7902509491296
keywords = schwann
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3/44. Pathologic causes of the superior oblique click syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features in two patients with superior oblique click syndrome and the pathologic causes of their symptoms. DESIGN: Two observational case reports. PARTICIPANTS: Two patients. methods: The clinical histories, results of physical examinations, treatment, and pathologic findings in two patients with superior oblique click syndrome are reviewed and analyzed with reference to the literature. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relief of symptoms. RESULTS: Both patients were operated on; one was found to have a schwannoma and the other a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath as causes of their symptoms. Symptoms were relieved by removal of the lesions and have not recurred. CONCLUSION: Definite pathologic lesions may cause the superior oblique click syndrome.
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ranking = 0.25575013558994
keywords = schwann
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4/44. Molecular analysis of malignant triton tumors.

    Triton tumors are rare variants of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with muscle differentiation, often seen in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Individuals affected with NF1 harbor mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene and develop neurofibromas and MPNSTs. The NF1 gene is expressed in schwann cells and its expression is lost in schwannian neoplasms, suggesting a role in malignant development. Separately, there is evidence that p53 suppressor gene mutations are involved in MPNSTs. To determine the role of the NF1 and p53 genes in the development of the malignant Triton tumor we examined 2 such tumors, 1 from a 3-year-old boy without clinical manifestations of NF1 and another from a 24-year-old man with NF1. Histological analysis of these tumors showed both neural and muscle differentiation with S-100 and desmin immunoreactivity, respectively. Reverse transcribed rna polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of NF1 mRNA showed NF1 expression in the sporadic tumor. Strong nuclear immunoreactivity for p53 was observed throughout the malignant population in both tumors. This was confirmed by loss of heterozygosity for p53 in the non-NF1 patient, suggesting that p53 is involved in both hereditary and sporadic Triton tumors. The finding of preserved NF1 gene expression in the non-NF1-related Triton tumor suggests that different genetic events predispose to the development of this rare neoplasm in sporadic cases.
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ranking = 0.25575013558994
keywords = schwann
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5/44. Intraneural angiosarcoma and angiosarcoma arising in benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of four cases.

    AIMS: Angiosarcomatous differentiation represents the least common form of heterologous differentiation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST), and is seen most frequently in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. More rarely, it has been reported in patients without stigmata of neurofibromatosis, or in benign nerve sheath tumours and peripheral nerves. This study was undertaken to confirm this rare association. methods AND RESULTS: Four cases of angiosarcoma arising in a peripheral nerve, in a long-standing schwannoma and in two MPNST are described. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections with the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase method. An intraneural high-grade epithelioid angiosarcoma arose in the left posterior tibial nerve of a 78-year-old man, a well to moderately differentiated angiosarcoma was seen in an ancient schwannoma of the lateral neck in a 73-year-old women, and an angiosarcoma of varying grades of differentiation developed in a recurrent MPNST in the thigh of 38-year-old man. In addition a high-grade MPNST in the axillary region of a 30-year-old man showed foci of heterologous high-grade angiosarcomatous differentiation. The neural and endothelial lines of differentiation were confirmed in each case by positive immunohistochemical staining for neural and endothelial markers, respectively. In all cases tested, the neural differentiated cells stained immunohistochemically positive for antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the rare association of angiosarcoma arising in peripheral nerves, as well as in benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours.
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ranking = 0.51150027117988
keywords = schwann
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6/44. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in benign ancient schwannoma: a case report with an immunohistochemical study.

    A rare example of malignant transformation in an ancient schwannoma arising in the right side of the neck of a 51-year-old man without any clinical manifestations suggesting neurofibromatosis is described. The tumor, approximately 4 cm at its largest dimension, was well circumscribed and had a direct connection with the sympathetic nerve. Microscopically, the central portion of the tumor showed features of ancient schwannoma characterized by extensive hyalinization with cystic degeneration, scattered spindle cells with hyperchromatic and tapered nuclei, and some symplastic changes. However, predominantly in the outer portion, a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells with enlarged nuclei was present. The nuclei of these cells showed irregular contours, coarse granular chromatin texture, and conspicuous nucleoli. Mitotic figures and small necrotic foci with scattered apoptotic bodies were also seen. Immunohistochemically, S-100 protein was almost negative in areas consisting of overtly atypical cells where the mitotic index evaluated with MIB-1 antibody was 30.5%. In contrast, S-100-positive bland spindle cells were scattered in an extensively hyalinized area with a labeling index less than 3%. P53 protein was strongly positive in atypical spindle cells. Although it is a very uncommon event, definite nuclear atypia, frequent mitotic figures, and the existence of small necrotic foci should be recognized as indicating a diagnosis of malignant degeneration of benign schwannoma. immunohistochemistry would be useful as an ancillary technique in such a setting.
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ranking = 1.7902509491296
keywords = schwann
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7/44. Schwannoma with angiosarcoma. Report of a case and comparison with other types of nerve tumors with angiosarcoma.

    BACKGROUND: Schwannoma with angiosarcomatous change is a rare tumor, the clinical characteristics of which have not been analyzed. methods: A patient with schwannoma with angiosarcoma arising in the midneck and clinically mimicking a carotid body paraganglioma is described with a literature review of all previously reported cases and a comparison of their clinical features with those of schwannoma with conventional malignant transformation and cases of neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with angiosarcoma. RESULTS: There are four reported cases, including the present case. Schwannoma with angiosarcoma affects older adults, mainly men. Three tumors arose from the vagus nerve in the neck. Three of the four angiosarcomas were epithelioid in type. Treatment in all cases was surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy in one case and by radiation alone in another. One patient died with residual local angiosarcoma 5 months after the diagnosis. The remaining three patients were alive and disease free at 27 months, 43 months, and 90 months, with distant metastasis (after 15 months) reported only in the patient described in this case report. CONCLUSIONS: Schwannoma with angiosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of presumed carotid body paragangliomas. Like angiosarcoma alone and schwannoma with conventional malignant transformation, but unlike cases of neurofibroma and MPNST with angiosarcoma, the patients are older adults, and there is a male prevalence. Schwannoma with angiosarcoma is capable of local spread with a fatal outcome and of distant metastasis, but follow-up strongly suggests that these patients have a better prognosis than patients with neurofibroma or MPNST with angiosarcoma. Recommended treatment is attempted complete surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy, if it can be tolerated by the patient.
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ranking = 0.76725040676981
keywords = schwann
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8/44. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the esophagus.

    BACKGROUND: Sarcomas of the esophagus are rare representing 0.1-1.5% of all esophageal tumors. We report a case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the esophagus in a 60-year-old woman. methods: The diagnosis was made preoperatively on endoscopic biopsy and confirmed after tumor resection by immunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. The patient underwent abdominal-thoracicen bloc esophagectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy and intrathoracic esophagogastrostomy. RESULTS: Our therapeutic concept for the first case of a high-grade MPNST (malignant schwannoma) of the esophagus resulted in a recurrence-free interval of 4 years. CONCLUSION: The therapy of choice was abdominal-thoracic en bloc esophagectomy with tumor-free resection margins and esophageal reconstruction with the stomach. After R0-resection we found no indication for adjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy.
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ranking = 0.25575013558994
keywords = schwann
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9/44. Subcutaneous malignant epithelioid schwannoma with cartilaginous differentiation.

    BACKGROUND: Malignant epithelioid schwannoma is a rare tumor. The aim of this study is to describe a case of subcutaneous malignant epithelioid schwannoma with cartilaginous differentiation. methods: Histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examinations were performed on a tumor that arose on the back of a 37-year-old woman. RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor predominantly consisted of small, round or polygonal cells arranged in cords or nests. Immunohistochemical study revealed that the tumors cells were positive for vimentin, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron specific enolase. The cells were negative for HMB-45, keratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and CAM5.2. Electron microscopic study showed closely associated cells with undifferentiated features. The cells were devoid of external laminae and cellular junctions. CONCLUSION: Malignant epithelioid schwannoma should be pathologically differentiated from other epithelioid tumors with cartilaginous elements.
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ranking = 1.7902509491296
keywords = schwann
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10/44. Vestibular schwannoma with malignant transformation: a case report.

    We describe a rare case of malignant transformation in a vestibular schwannoma in a 33-yr-old woman. She presented herself with headache, tinnitus, and hearing loss and underwent posterior fossa explorations three times during the short period of 3 months. The clinicopathological features of the original tumor were typical of benign vestibular schwannoma. Despite a complete microsurgical excision, two months later, the tumor recurred locally with a rapid increase in size causing a progressive worsening of neurological symptoms. A diagnosis of malignant schwannoma was made for the recurrent tumor on the basis of the microscopic findings of high cellularity, moderate pleomorphism, and the presence of mitotic cells. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging performed a month after the second surgery unexpectedly showed definite tumor enlargement. She remained clinically stable following the third debulking of the tumor and adjuvant radiotherapy. We propose that this recurrent tumor represent malignant transformation from a benign vestibular schwannoma which was an unusual occurrence in a patient without neurofibromatosis.
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ranking = 2.0460010847195
keywords = schwann
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