Cases reported "Nervous System Diseases"

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1/10. Clinical and pharmacological profile in a clenbuterol epidemic poisoning of contaminated beef meat in italy.

    Long-acting beta adrenergic agonists, such as clenbuterol accumulate in the liver, but not meat of treated farm animals, and result in epidemic poisonings in consumers. We describe an outbreak of poisoning in 15 people, following the consumption of meat. Clinical symptoms (distal tremors, palpitations, headache, tachipnoea-dyspnoea, and also moderate hyperglycaemia, hypokalemia and leucocytosis) were seen in nine hospitalised patients, starting about 0.5-3 h after poisoning, and disappearing within 3-5 days later. clenbuterol was found in the urine of all the symptomatic patients, at higher levels than pharmacokinetic computing (mean level 28 ng/ml, 36 h after ingestion), based on the levels found in the meat (1140-1480 ng/g edible tissue). Thus, epidemic poisoning can be produced following the consumption of contaminated meat. The need for a better definition of pharmaco- and toxico-kinetics, not only for drugs ingested as parent drug, but also when ingested as residues with animal tissues, is recommended.
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2/10. Neurological events associated with the infusion of cryopreserved bone marrow and/or peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    Reports of neurological toxicity of cryopreserved stem cell infusion are infrequent. Three of 179 consecutive patients experienced significant neurological events in this context. Transient global amnesia developed following infusion in one patient and in the other two, cerebral infarction occurred. Profound hypotension, bradyarrhythmias or hypoxia were not associated with any of these episodes. These events may have been related to infused DMSO, which in the non-transplant setting has been associated with neurological toxicity and local infusion of which has resulted in acute vasospasm in animal models. These cases suggest that infusion of cryopreserved stem cells may result in cerebrovascular ischaemia. bone marrow transplantation (2000) 25, 1285-1287.
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3/10. antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients.

    antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) mediate demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in different animal species and are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to evaluate the anti-MOG response, we have analyzed the cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) from 44 MS patients and 51 controls, 11 with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 40 with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND). The frequency of anti-MOG antibodies positive patients in the MS group (30%) was significantly higher compared to the NIND (8%, p=0.02), but not compared to the OIND group (55%, p=0.228). Interestingly, all six patients with neurosarcoidosis had MOG-specific antibodies in their CSF. Frequency of anti-MOG antibodies was similar in patients with clinically active and stable MS (32% and 26%, respectively; p=0.921). However, in clinically active MS patients, antibody titers were higher in comparison with patients with stable disease, although the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.06). These results further support the potential role of anti-MOG antibodies in the immunopathology of MS in the subset of patients with this disease. Furthermore, our findings suggest for the first time that anti-MOG antibodies could be an accessory diagnostic tool in neurosarcoidosis.
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4/10. methionine in the treatment of nitrous-oxide-induced neuropathy and myeloneuropathy.

    Two cases of severe myeloneuropathy and macrocytic anemia associated with a low serum level of vitamin B12 after prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide are reported. In both cases, the neurological manifestations worsened initially despite B12 supplementation, although in one case the use of methionine seemed to arrest the progression of the disease and accelerate recovery. This offers further support for the biochemical hypothesis of methionine synthetase inhibition by nitrous oxide and reproduces in man previously reported animal studies with methionine. methionine may be an important first-line therapy in the initial treatment of neuropathy and myeloneuropathy induced by nitrous oxide, and has a hypothetical role in the treatment of subacute combined degeneration of the cord.
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5/10. diabetes mellitus and autonomic dysfunction after vacor rodenticide ingestion.

    A case of N-3 pyridylmethyl-N' 4 nitrophenyl urea (Vacor) rodenticide poisoning in a 52-year-old man is presented. Vacor is structurally related to alloxan and streptozotocin, agents that have been used extensively to produce diabetes mellitus in laboratory animals. Seven days after ingestion of Vacor, the patient presented in diabetic ketoacidosis complicated by postural hypotension and adynamic ileus. The patient recovered from ketoacidosis but has continued to require insulin. With infusion of arginine, glucagon rose from 185 to 650 pg./ml. and c-peptide from 0.5 to 3.4 ng./ml. Six weeks after onset of diabetes, no anti-islet-cell antibodies were detected. Muscle capillary basement membrane thickness on electron microscopy was found to be 1,918 /- 194 A. The absence of hyperglycemia after Vacor ingestion should not lead to complacency on the part of the attending physician. The patient must be observed closely for development of ketoacidosis and treated prophylactically with nicotinamide, the suggested antidote.
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6/10. Animal illness and human emotion. Neurologic problems.

    Clients' decisions are based on the veterinarian's ability to familiarize them with nervous system disease. Unfortunately, the nervous system does not lend itself to complete examination without advanced neurodiagnostic tests. These tests usually require general anesthesia, may be invasive, and often require advanced training. Therefore, a logical and orderly approach to animals with neurologic disease should be mastered. Problems can be avoided by educating the client about the extent of neurologic disease, the working diagnosis, pros and cons of diagnostic and therapeutic options, and a plan of action should unanticipated problems arise.
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7/10. Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    We present a 9-month-old exclusively breast-fed baby of a strict vegetarian mother who had excluded all animal proteins from her diet. The patient's symptoms included dystrophy, weakness, muscular atrophy, loss of tendon reflexes, psychomotor regression and haematological abnormalities. Biochemical investigations revealed severe methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria in the patient, slight methylmalonic aciduria in the mother and low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 in both patient and mother.
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8/10. Motor responses of the small intestine to intraluminal distension in normal volunteers and a patient with visceral neuropathy.

    The motor responses of the small intestine to intraluminal distension were studied proximal and distal to an inflatable balloon in 13 normal volunteers. During fasting, distension rapidly induced a persistent localised inhibition of distal contractile activity with a small proximal increase. Proximally, phase III activity was unaffected during distension but its propagation across and appearance below the balloon was inhibited. Upon deflating the balloon a normal motor pattern rapidly returned. Similar changes were observed during distension in the fed state. The changes in the motor pattern resemble those of the intrinsically mediated 'peristaltic reflex', studied in animals, and suggest that in man the response to balloon distension may also be mediated through an intrinsic mechanism. A patient with a visceral neuropathy, studied in a similar manner, had no inhibition of distal motor activity during distension, suggesting a functional defect of the enteric nerves. Further observations of the motor responses to distension in similar patients seem indicated to determine the usefulness of this technique for evaluating enteric nervous system function when an abnormality is suspected.
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9/10. Chronic human colchicine neuropathy and myopathy.

    A 43-year-old woman who indiscriminately took colchicine for five years developed a progressive multisystem syndrome that included severe axonal neuropathy and a pathologically striking myopathy. The neuropathy and myopathy were similar to experimental animal colchicine-induced neuromuscular toxicity.
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10/10. An investigation of the effects of intracerebral injection in the marmoset of cytopathic cerebrospinal fluid from patients with schizophrenia or neurological disease.

    In experiments designed to investigate transmission, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia and neurological disease (huntington's chorea and multiple sclerosis) which had been found to induce cytopathic effects in human embryonic fibroblast cell culture was injected intracerebrally into mice, hamsters and marmosets (small New World primates). No evidence was obtained of transmission to mice or hamsters. A total of 15 marmosets (callithrix jacchus) was injected intracerebrally with CSF [8 with samples from 4 patients with schizophrenia. 3 with samples from patients with neurological disease (2 with Huntington's chorea and 1 with multiple sclerosis) and 4 with samples from 3 patients without neurological or psychiatric disease] and was observed over a period of 2 1/2 years. analysis of variance on data obtained from behavioral observations averaged over 6-month periods revealed that animals injected with CSF from patients with schizophrenia and neurological disease became progressively more inactive when compared with animals injected with CSF from control patients. The change detected by behavioural observation was confirmed as a difference 2 and 2 1/2 years after injection by automated activity monitoring. There was an incidence of reproductive anomalies (including two occipital encephalocoeles) in the females in the experimental group, but the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions from this observation. Many reported differences in biological samples from schizophrenic patients and normal controls have subsequently been found to be due to factors unrelated to the disease state. This may prove to be the case with the changes observed in this experiment. Nevertheless, the fact that marmosets injected with CSF from patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disease, including schizophrenia, subsequently differed in their behaviour from those injected with control CSF warrants further investigation.
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