Cases reported "Nervous System Diseases"

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1/77. Antiamphiphysin antibodies are associated with various paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and tumors.

    BACKGROUND: Antiamphiphysin antibodies react with a 128-kd protein found in synaptic vesicles.They were first described in patients with paraneoplastic stiff-man syndrome and breast cancer, but studies suggest that they can also occur in patients with other tumors and neurological disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine if antiamphiphysin antibodies are associated with various paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and tumors. patients AND methods: Of 2800 serum samples tested by routine immunohistochemical procedures on sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat brain for the detection of autoantibodies associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, 5 were selected because of labeling suggestive of antiamphiphysin antibodies and subsequently confirmed by the results of Western blot analysis using recombinant amphiphysin protein. Controls consisted of 40 patients with various nonparaneoplastic neurological diseases; 101 patients with cancer but without paraneoplastic neurological syndrome; 9 patients with small cell lung cancer, anti-Hu antibodies, and paraneoplastic neurological syndrome; 3 patients with M2-type antimitochondrial antibodies but no neurological disorder; and 30 normal subjects. RESULTS: Of the 5 patients with antiamphiphysin antibodies, patient 1 had sensory neuronopathy, encephalomyelitis, and breast cancer; patient 2 had limbic encephalitis, and small cell lung cancer was detected in the mediastinum after 24 months of follow-up; patient 3 had encephalomyelitis and ovarian carcinoma; and patients 4 and 5 had lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome and small cell lung cancer (patient 4 subsequently developed cerebellar degeneration). None of the 5 had stiffness. Two patients (Nos. 2 and 4) had antimitochondrial antibodies. The two patients (Nos. 4 and 5) with lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome had antibodies directed against the voltage-gated calcium channel, and patient 2 subsequently developed anti-Hu antibodies. In the controls, antiamphiphysin antibodies were detected by Western blot analysis in 3 of 8 patients with anti-Hu antibodies, but in none of the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that antiamphiphysin antibodies are not specific for one type of tumor or one neurological syndrome and can be associated with other neural and nonneural antibodies. The simultaneous association of several antibodies in some patients suggests multimodal autoantibody production.
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2/77. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in a patient with neurosarcoidosis.

    The case of a 56-year-old woman who developed neurosarcoidosis and was discovered to have inferior vena cava and lower extremity thromboses is described. She was found to have anticardiolipin antibodies. This newly described association of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with sarcoidosis is discussed and the relevant literature reviewed.
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3/77. Can neurologic manifestations of Hughes (antiphospholipid) syndrome be distinguished from multiple sclerosis? Analysis of 27 patients and review of the literature.

    Hughes (antiphospholipid) syndrome (APS) can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of MS-like expression in a cohort of patients with APS in an attempt to identify parameters that might differentiate the 2 entities. We studied 27 patients who were referred to our unit with the diagnosis of probable or definite MS made by a neurologist. All patients were referred to our lupus clinic because of symptoms suggesting an underlying connective tissue disease, uncommon findings for MS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), atypical evolution of MS, or antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity. aPL, antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies were measured by standard methods. MRI was performed in every patient and compared with MRI of 25 definite MS patients who did not have aPL. An index severity score was calculated based on the size and number of increased signal intensity areas in MRI. In the past medical history, 8 patients with primary APS and 6 with APS secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had had symptoms related to these conditions. Neurologic symptoms and physical examination of the patients were not different from those common in MS patients. Laboratory findings were not a useful tool to distinguish APS from MS. When MRI from APS patients was compared globally with MRI from MS patients, MS patients had significantly increased severity score in white matter (p < 0.001), cerebellum (p = 0.035), pons (p < 0.015), and when all areas were taken together (p < 0.001). patients with APS had significantly increased scores in the putamen (p < 0.01). No differences were noticed in the degree of atrophy. When taken individually, MRI from APS patients could not be distinguished from MRI from MS patients. Most of the patients with primary APS showed a good response to oral anticoagulant treatment. In patients with secondary APS, the outcome was poorer. Hughes syndrome (APS) and MS can be difficult to distinguish. A careful medical history, a previous history of thrombosis and/or fetal loss, an abnormal localization of the lesions in MRI, and the response to anticoagulant therapy might be helpful in the differential diagnosis. We believe that testing for aPL should become routine in all patients with MS.
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4/77. Neurobrucellosis--a rare complication of renal transplantation.

    brucellosis is an intracellular bacterial infection contracted by consuming raw milk or by contact with infected cattle. Neurobrucellosis is a rather rare manifestation of brucellosis and has protean clinical presentations characterized by meningoencephalitis, myelitis, myelopathies, subarachnoid hemorrhage and psychiatric manifestations. A depressed immune status is believed to be a risk factor for developing neurobrucellosis. We report a case of neurobrucellosis in a patient 13 years after a cadaveric renal transplantation. Even though a brucella organism was not isolated from body fluids she satisfied other criteria for establishing the diagnosis. Treatment with doxycycline and rifampin led to a clinical cure as well as to marked improvement in the brucella titer.
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5/77. Absence of N-acetylaspartate in the human brain: impact on neurospectroscopy?

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA) contributes to the most prominent signal in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the adult human brain. We report the absence of NAA in the brain of a 3-year-old child with neurodevelopmental retardation and moderately delayed myelination. Since normal concentration of NAA in body fluids is hardly detectable, 1H-MRS is a noninvasive technique for identifying neurometabolic diseases with absent NAA. This report puts NAA as a neuronal marker to question.
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6/77. Cranial neuropathy, myeloradiculopathy, and myositis: complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    polymyositis, transverse myelitis, ascending polyneuritis, bilateral optic neuritis, and hearing loss developed in a patient with high complement-fixing antibody titers to mycoplasma pneumoniae. Each of her three children had primary atypical pneumonia with isolation of the organism. The neurologic disturbance is thought to represent a postinfectious complication of M pneumoniae infection.
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7/77. Quantification of circulating anti-Hu antibody in serial samples from patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: possible correlation of antibody concentration and course of neurological symptoms.

    Serial samples, spanning an observation period of 4 to 10 years, from five patients with anti-Hu associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) were investigated with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing recombinant HuD protein as antigen. In one patient the anti-Hu antibody concentration converted from negative to highly positive levels after the onset of neurological symptoms. These findings argue in favour of the idea that an autoimmune process, which is generated at the beginning of the neurological disease, causes the anti-Hu associated PNS. serum samples obtained shortly after the beginning of the PNS were available from two other patients. The anti-Hu antibody levels in these latter patients increased from modest to highly positive anti-Hu antibody in follow up samples. In two patients a clear decrease of the anti-HuD antibody concentration together with an improvement of paraneoplastic neurological symptoms after successful tumour treatment were seen. overall these data suggest that there might be a correlation between the anti-HuD antibody level and the clinical course of paraneoplastic neurological symptoms which supports further the hypothesis that an autoimmune process is responsible for the anti-Hu associated paraneoplastic neurological symptoms.
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8/77. role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis.

    A 45-year-old man developed seizures and myelopathy. MRI showed bitemporal and cervical spinal cord hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted and FLAIR images that contrast-enhanced. Initial evaluation for sarcoidosis was negative, including serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and chest X-ray. Whole body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed multiple hypermetabolic hilar and mediastinal foci and spinal cord hypermetabolism at the site of MRI abnormality. temporal lobe MRI lesions were hypometabolic. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy was consistent with sarcoidosis. The brain, spinal cord, and chest metabolic abnormalities together with the clinical presentation were interpreted as being most consistent with sarcoidosis. FDG-PET helped target the site of biopsy that subsequently confirmed the diagnosis histologically. In patients with perplexing neurologic presentations, whole body FDG-PET can help secure a timely and minimally invasive diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis.
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9/77. Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) mediate demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in different animal species and are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to evaluate the anti-MOG response, we have analyzed the cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs) from 44 MS patients and 51 controls, 11 with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and 40 with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND). The frequency of anti-MOG antibodies positive patients in the MS group (30%) was significantly higher compared to the NIND (8%, p=0.02), but not compared to the OIND group (55%, p=0.228). Interestingly, all six patients with neurosarcoidosis had MOG-specific antibodies in their CSF. Frequency of anti-MOG antibodies was similar in patients with clinically active and stable MS (32% and 26%, respectively; p=0.921). However, in clinically active MS patients, antibody titers were higher in comparison with patients with stable disease, although the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.06). These results further support the potential role of anti-MOG antibodies in the immunopathology of MS in the subset of patients with this disease. Furthermore, our findings suggest for the first time that anti-MOG antibodies could be an accessory diagnostic tool in neurosarcoidosis.
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10/77. Characteristics and associated features of persistent post-sympathectomy pain.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the incidence and characteristics of pain, sensory abnormalities, abnormal body sweating, and pathologic gustatory sweating in pain patients with persistent post-sympathectomy pain. methods: A retrospective chart review of a series of consecutive pain patients with persistent post-sympathectomy pain was performed. Inclusion criteria were: (1) sympathectomy performed for the indication of neuropathic pain, and (2) persistent pain after the procedure. Demographic data, patterns of pain before and after sympathectomy, patients' pain drawings, and incidence of pain had been collected concurrently at the time of referral. Additional data regarding sensory findings, surgical details of the sympathectomy, sweat patterns, and incidence of abnormal body sweating and pathologic gustatory sweating were extracted from the patients' charts or obtained in follow-up appointments. RESULTS: Seventeen adults (13 females and 4 males) with a mean age of 37 years (range 25-52) at the time of sympathectomy met the inclusion criteria. Five of the 17 patients experienced temporary pain relief for an average of 4 months (range 2-12 months), 3/17 retained the same pain as before the surgery, 1 patient was cured of her original pain but experienced a new debilitating pain, and 8/17 patients continued to have the same or worse pain in addition to a new or expanded pain. Pathologic gustatory sweating was present in 7/11 patients asked, and abnormal sweating (known as compensatory hyperhidrosis) in 11/13 patients asked. DISCUSSION: The present study does not allow for conclusions about the effectiveness of surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain. However, our findings indicate that if the pain persists after the procedure, the complications may be quite serious and at times worse than the problem for which the surgery was originally performed.
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