Cases reported "Nervous System Diseases"

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1/406. Long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency neuropathy: response to cod liver oil.

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency has recently been documented in several children with long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). We studied a 13-year-old boy with LCHADD who had limb girdle myopathy, recurrent myoglobinuria, and progressive sensorimotor axonopathy with demyelination. At 11 years of age, he was started on cod liver oil extract, high in DHA content. Over 12 months, he demonstrated a marked clinical recovery. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) demonstrated reappearance of previously absent posterior tibial and peroneal nerve responses and the amplitudes on motor ulnar and median NCS markedly increased from 7- to 14-fold, respectively.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuropathy
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2/406. Acute inflammatory neuropathy in charcot-marie-tooth disease.

    The authors report an association between acute inflammatory neuropathy and previously undiagnosed Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease in a 15-year-old girl. sural nerve biopsy study showed hypertrophic neuropathy with endoneurial infiltrates of macrophages and lymphocytes. This association may be coincidental, but a particular susceptibility to damage of these peripheral nerves cannot be excluded. This report confirms the importance of pes cavus as a sign of long-standing sensorimotor neuropathy.
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ranking = 1.75
keywords = neuropathy
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3/406. charcot-marie-tooth disease type I diagnosed in a 5-year-old boy after vincristine neurotoxicity, resulting in maternal diagnosis.

    charcot-marie-tooth disease type 1, also known as hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type 1, is an uncommon autosomal dominant disease that causes destruction of peripheral nerves with a varied clinical course, but often leads to muscle weakness. If the peroneal muscle is involved, the patient may develop a characteristic slapping gait. The dose-limiting side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine is usually its neurotoxicity. We report the case of a 5-year-old patient with leukemia who developed an acute polyneuropathy after treatment with vincristine. charcot-marie-tooth disease type 1 was diagnosed in the patient and, subsequently, in his mother only after vincristine toxicity was observed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = neuropathy
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4/406. Can immunoadsorption plasmapheresis be used as the first choice therapy for neuroimmunological disorders?

    The subjects were 31 patients in whom immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) was performed as the first choice therapy for primary or recurrent neuroimmunological disorders. The clinical manifestations before and after IAPP and the use of corticosteroids were investigated in the present study. IAPP was clinically effective in all patients. The corticosteroids (CSs) administration was begun or CSs were increased after completion of IAPP in 11 patients. IAPP was performed as the first choice therapy, and favorable results were obtained in patients with guillain-barre syndrome and Miller-Fisher syndrome. IAPP alone was also effective in a patient with lupoid sclerosis. When IAPP was used alone in 2 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, it completely eliminated the clinical manifestations, but the symptoms recurred about 2 months later. Therefore, although IAPP could be performed as the first choice therapy for many neuroimmunological disorders, subsequent therapies should be carefully investigated.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neuropathy
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5/406. Liver disease in Navajo neuropathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and histologic features of liver disease in infants and children with Navajo neuropathy (NN). methods: physicians at Navajo Area Indian health Service facilities and neurologists and gastroenterologists at regional referral hospitals were surveyed for identification of patients born between 1980 and 1994 with known or suspected NN. Clinical records and liver histologic findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Liver disease was present in all children with NN. Three clinical phenotypes of NN were observed, based on age at presentation and course: infantile NN presented in 5 infants before 6 months of age with jaundice and failure to thrive and progressed to liver failure before 2 years of age; childhood NN presented in 6 children between 1 and 5 years of age with liver dysfunction, which progressed to liver failure and death within 6 months; and classical NN presented in 9 children with variable onset of liver disease but progressive neurologic deterioration. Liver histologic findings were characterized by multinucleate giant cells, macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis, pseudo-acini, inflammation, cholestasis, and bridging fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cases of all 3 phenotypes occurred within the same kindred. CONCLUSIONS: Liver disease is an important component of NN and may be the predominant feature in infants and young children. We propose changing the name of this disease to Navajo neurohepatopathy.
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ranking = 1.2507694485903
keywords = neuropathy, giant
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6/406. A case of Perlman syndrome: fetal gigantism, renal dysplasia, and severe neurological deficits.

    We report on a neonate presenting with polyhydramnios; macrosomia; macrocephaly; visceromegaly including bilateral nephromegaly, hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly; thymus hyperplasia; cryptorchidism; generalized muscle hypotonia; and a distinctive facial appearance. The clinical course was marked by severe neurodevelopmental deficits combined with progressive respiratory decompensation leading to death at the age 6 months. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a generalized cerebral atrophy with a marked deficit of the white matter. Renal ultrasound and MRI showed markedly enlarged kidneys with multiple small cystic lesions, a pattern indistinguishable from polycystic kidney disease. The postmortem kidney biopsy revealed dysplastic changes, microcysts, and a focal nephrogenic rest, characteristic features of the Perlman syndrome. In children with fetal gigantism, renal abnormalities, and neurological deficits, Perlman syndrome should be considered and may be confirmed by kidney biopsy.
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ranking = 0.23148799728286
keywords = gan
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7/406. biotinidase deficiency--a treatable entity.

    biotinidase deficiency is a well recognised treatable cause of a wide spectrum of progressive neurological symptoms. Recent reports have stressed the need to screen children with early onset of seizures, encephalopathy, neurodevelopmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. Enzyme estimation remains the conclusive test. We present a patient with biotinidase deficiency suspected on the above clinical grounds and diagnosed on the basis of metabolic acidosis, raised blood lactate, ketonuria and positive dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) test and confirmed on urinary organic acid profile. Supplementation with biotin resulted in marked clinical improvement and normalisation of metabolic parameters. Thus the clinician should be alert to simple clinical pointers which aid in early diagnosis of these disorders.
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ranking = 0.046297599456572
keywords = gan
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8/406. Methyl-prednisolone in neurologic complications of mycoplasma pneumonia.

    In patients with mycoplasma pneumonia extrapulmonary manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, cerebellar and brain stem involvement, cranial nerve lesions, peripheral neuropathy, polymyositis have been observed. We report a 16-year-old girl with M. pneumonia infection, acute behavioral changes and coma. Treatment with high dose methyl-prednisolone and clarithromycin led to rapid clinical improvement.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neuropathy
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9/406. Neurosarcoidosis diagnosed during pregnancy by thoracoscopic lymph node biopsy. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoidosis is a multiorgan-system granulomatous disease causing respiratory complaints in most patients. eye involvement, most commonly granulomatous uveitis, is seen in 5% of black patients with sarcoidosis. Neurosarcoidosis is also rare, affecting 5% of patients with sarcoidosis. Thoracoscopic lymph node biopsy in pregnancy has never before been reported. CASE: An otherwise-healthy, 25-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1001, presented at 25 weeks' gestation with a painful facial palsy and visual defects. Ophthalmologic examination revealed uveitis, and a chest radiograph revealed asymmetric hilar adenopathy. At 28 weeks' gestation, the patient underwent thoracoscopic lymph node biopsy, which confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The symptoms were stabilized with therapeutic corticosteroids, and the patient delivered a healthy neonate at term. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains one of exclusion and requires a high index of suspicion. Tissue confirmation is often necessary, especially when patients have extrathoracic complaints. For patients without other lesions amenable to biopsy, thoracoscopic lymph node biopsy can be considered despite pregnancy.
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ranking = 0.046297599456572
keywords = gan
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10/406. Paradoxical lithium neurotoxicity: a report of five cases and a hypothesis about risk for neurotoxicity.

    There have been many reports of probable lithium-induced organic brain syndromes occurring when serum lithium levels are within or close to the therapeutic range. The authors report on five patients who developed clinical syndromes suggestive of severe neurotoxicity during lithium treatment. In all cases lithium levels were between .75 and 1.7 mEq/liter. The patients who developed neurotoxicity had markedly higher global ratings of psychotic symptomatology and anxiety in the pretoxic period than did patients who never deveoped neurotoxicity. When the acute manic state is characterized by marked psychotic symptoms and intense anxiety, it may be associated with increased vulnerability to the development of severe lithium neurotoxicity.
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ranking = 0.046297599456572
keywords = gan
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