Cases reported "Nervous System Diseases"

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1/116. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) PET scan of the brain in type IV 3-methylglutaconic aciduria: clinical and MRI correlations.

    The clinical, 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan characteristics of four patients diagnosed to have 3-methylglutaconic aciduria were reviewed retrospectively. The disease has a characteristic clinical pattern. The initial presentations were developmental delay, hypotonia, and severe failure to thrive. Later, progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and quadriparesis were observed, followed by severe dystonia and choreoathetosis. Finally, the patients became severely demented and bedridden. The 18FDG PET scans showed progressive disease, explaining the neurological status. It could be classified into three stages. Stage I: absent 18FDG uptake in the heads of the caudate, mild decreased thalamic and cerebellar metabolism. Stage II: absent uptake in the anterior half and posterior quarter of the putamina, mild-moderate decreased uptake in the cerebral cortex more prominently in the parieto-temporal lobes. Progressive decreased thalamic and cerebellar uptake. Stage III: absent uptake in the putamina and severe decreased cortical uptake consistent with brain atrophy and further decrease uptake in the cerebellum. The presence of both structural and functional changes in the brain, demonstrated by the combined use of MRI and 18FDG PET scan, with good clinical correlation, make the two techniques complementary in the imaging evaluation of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
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keywords = atrophy
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2/116. Can neurologic manifestations of Hughes (antiphospholipid) syndrome be distinguished from multiple sclerosis? Analysis of 27 patients and review of the literature.

    Hughes (antiphospholipid) syndrome (APS) can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of MS-like expression in a cohort of patients with APS in an attempt to identify parameters that might differentiate the 2 entities. We studied 27 patients who were referred to our unit with the diagnosis of probable or definite MS made by a neurologist. All patients were referred to our lupus clinic because of symptoms suggesting an underlying connective tissue disease, uncommon findings for MS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), atypical evolution of MS, or antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity. aPL, antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dsDNA, and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies were measured by standard methods. MRI was performed in every patient and compared with MRI of 25 definite MS patients who did not have aPL. An index severity score was calculated based on the size and number of increased signal intensity areas in MRI. In the past medical history, 8 patients with primary APS and 6 with APS secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had had symptoms related to these conditions. Neurologic symptoms and physical examination of the patients were not different from those common in MS patients. Laboratory findings were not a useful tool to distinguish APS from MS. When MRI from APS patients was compared globally with MRI from MS patients, MS patients had significantly increased severity score in white matter (p < 0.001), cerebellum (p = 0.035), pons (p < 0.015), and when all areas were taken together (p < 0.001). patients with APS had significantly increased scores in the putamen (p < 0.01). No differences were noticed in the degree of atrophy. When taken individually, MRI from APS patients could not be distinguished from MRI from MS patients. Most of the patients with primary APS showed a good response to oral anticoagulant treatment. In patients with secondary APS, the outcome was poorer. Hughes syndrome (APS) and MS can be difficult to distinguish. A careful medical history, a previous history of thrombosis and/or fetal loss, an abnormal localization of the lesions in MRI, and the response to anticoagulant therapy might be helpful in the differential diagnosis. We believe that testing for aPL should become routine in all patients with MS.
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3/116. A case of Perlman syndrome: fetal gigantism, renal dysplasia, and severe neurological deficits.

    We report on a neonate presenting with polyhydramnios; macrosomia; macrocephaly; visceromegaly including bilateral nephromegaly, hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly; thymus hyperplasia; cryptorchidism; generalized muscle hypotonia; and a distinctive facial appearance. The clinical course was marked by severe neurodevelopmental deficits combined with progressive respiratory decompensation leading to death at the age 6 months. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a generalized cerebral atrophy with a marked deficit of the white matter. Renal ultrasound and MRI showed markedly enlarged kidneys with multiple small cystic lesions, a pattern indistinguishable from polycystic kidney disease. The postmortem kidney biopsy revealed dysplastic changes, microcysts, and a focal nephrogenic rest, characteristic features of the Perlman syndrome. In children with fetal gigantism, renal abnormalities, and neurological deficits, Perlman syndrome should be considered and may be confirmed by kidney biopsy.
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4/116. Neurological symptoms in patients whose cerebrospinal fluid is culture- and/or polymerase chain reaction-positive for mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    We describe 13 patients with neurological signs and symptoms associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. M. pneumoniae was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 9 patients: 5 with meningoencephalitis, 2 with meningitis, and 1 with cerebrovascular infarction. One patient had headache and difficulties with concentration and thinking for 1 month after the acute infection. M. pneumoniae was detected, by means of PCR, in the CSF of 4 patients with negative culture results. Two had epileptic seizures, 1 had blurred vision as a consequence of edema of the optic disk, and 1 had peripheral nerve neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.085082880881848
keywords = optic
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5/116. Fatal infantile X-linked neuropathy.

    We report a pedigree with severe X-linked neuropathy that occurs in male infants and results in death, typically by 2 years of age. The proband of our report was weak with preserved mentation. He underwent extensive evaluation, which revealed abnormal nerve conduction studies, neurogenic changes on muscle biopsy, a decreased number of large myelinated fibers and rare onion bulb formations on nerve biopsy, negative gene testing for spinal muscular atrophy, CMT1a, and CMTX1 and a normal brain magnetic resonance image. The proband's mother, an obligate carrier, had normal nerve conduction studies. male infants with a spinal muscular atrophy phenotype but normal genetic studies should be evaluated for this fatal X-linked neuropathy.
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keywords = atrophy
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6/116. mtDNA analysis of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy associated with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia.

    A patient was diagnosed in 1974 with the unique combination of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. The entire mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) sequence from this patient was determined in order to identify candidate pathogenic mutations. The patient's mtDNA carried the LHON mutation at nucleotide 14484, thus elucidating the etiology of his optic neuropathy. We also identified another ND6 mutation at nucleotide 14420. This latter mutation is probably a clinically benign private polymorphism, although a pathogenic role in his skeletal abnormalities or in his optic neuropathy cannot yet be ruled out.
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ranking = 0.59558016617294
keywords = optic
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7/116. Cranial neuropathy, myeloradiculopathy, and myositis: complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    polymyositis, transverse myelitis, ascending polyneuritis, bilateral optic neuritis, and hearing loss developed in a patient with high complement-fixing antibody titers to mycoplasma pneumoniae. Each of her three children had primary atypical pneumonia with isolation of the organism. The neurologic disturbance is thought to represent a postinfectious complication of M pneumoniae infection.
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ranking = 0.085082880881848
keywords = optic
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8/116. Another autosomal recessive form of focal glomerulosclerosis with neurological findings.

    We report four patients in a consanguineous family with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), early onset nephrotic syndrome, eventual end-stage renal failure, psychomotor retardation, seizures and microcephaly or brain atrophy without hiatus hernia. Other characteristic dysmorphic features were convergent strabismus and narrow forehead. One patient had enamel hypoplasia of the upper incisors and deviation of bilateral thumbs to palm side. We could not detect an NPHS2 mutation in this family. We propose that this may be another autosomal recessive syndrome with FSGS and neurological findings.
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9/116. Hyperpipecolic acidemia associated with hepatomegaly, mental retardation, optic nerve dysplasia and progressive neurological disease.

    A male infant with hyperpipecolic acidemia is described. To our knowledge this is only the second report of this disorder. As with the previous case, our patient's course was characterized by persistent hepatomegaly, severe mental retardation, progressive loss of developmental milestones and diminished visual acuity associated with nystagmus, abnormal discs and retinal changes. death occurred at 2 years of age, following a progressive loss of neurological function. Pipecolic acid was repeatedly present in the serum at a concentrattion of 4-5 mg %. Trace amounts of this compound were also detected in the urine. In addition, an adaption of the method of Piez et al. (1956) for the direct quantitation of pipecolic acid in serum was evaluated and found to be very useful for the biochemical diagnosis of this disorder.
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ranking = 0.34033152352739
keywords = optic
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10/116. Complex neurologic syndrome associated with the G1606A mutation of mitochondrial dna.

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm the pathogenicity of the G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 1606 (G1606A) mutation in the mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) tRNA(Val) gene, and to characterize genotype-phenotype correlation. PATIENT AND methods: A 37-year-old man since childhood developed a complex clinical picture characterized by hearing loss, migraine, ataxia, seizures, cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, mental deterioration, and hypothyroidism. magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse calcification of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortical atrophy. Morphologic and biochemical studies of respiratory chain complexes were performed in skeletal muscle. All 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Biochemical analysis showed normal activities of respiratory chain enzymes and citrate synthase; morphologic examination showed scattered ragged-red fibers and poor or absent cytochrome c oxidase staining in 10% of the fibers. A heteroplasmic G1606A transition in the mtDNA tRNA(Val) gene was found. Mutant dna was 70% of the total in the proband's muscle. The mutation was absent in blood samples and urinary sediment from his healthy brother and mother. CONCLUSION: This second patient with the G1606A mutation confirms both the pathogenicity of the mutation and its association with a characteristic complex neurologic phenotype.
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keywords = atrophy
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