Cases reported "Neuralgia"

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1/22. Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

    OBJECTIVE: To review treatment options for postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). DATA SOURCES: Clinical literature selected by the authors accessed via medline. Search terms included postherpetic neuralgia, capsaicin, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and lidocaine. STUDY SELECTION: Controlled trials relevant to PHN. DATA SYNTHESIS: Traditional analgesics offer little benefit for the treatment of PHN. The best results for pain relief have come from capsaicin and tricyclic antidepressants. anticonvulsants have also been used, although the number of studies evaluating this is limited. More invasive therapies, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and nerve blocks, can be considered if other therapies fail. CONCLUSION: early diagnosis and treatment of herpes zoster may offer patients the best chance of preventing the development of PHN. However, if PHN does develop, the patient should seek treatment early for the best chance of pain relief.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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2/22. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia for postherpetic neuralgia in an hiv-infected patient as a therapeutic ambulatory modality.

    A 43-year-old hiv-positive male was referred to our pain clinic one month after his fourth attack of herpes zoster infection. He complained of intermittent intolerable sharp and lancinating pain accompanied by numbness over the inner aspect of the left upper extremity, left anterior chest wall and the back. physical examination revealed allodynia over the left T1 and T2 dermatomes without any obvious skin lesion. The pain was treated with epidural block made possible by a retention epidural catheter placed via the T2-3 interspace. After the administration of 8 ml of 1% lidocaine in divided doses, the pain was completely relieved for 4 h without significant change of blood pressure or heart rate. A pump (Baxter API) for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) filled with 0.08% bupivacaine was connected to the epidural catheter on the next day and programmed at a basal rate of 2 ml/h, PCA dose 2 ml, lockout interval 15 min, with an one-hour dose limit of 8 ml. He was instructed to report his condition by telephone every weekday. The pump was refilled with drug and the wound of catheter entry was checked and managed every 3 or 4 days. The epidural catheter was replaced every week. During treatment, the pain intensity was controlled in the range from 10 to 0-2 on the visual analogue scale. He was very satisfied with the treatment and reported only slight hypoesthesia over the left upper extremity in the early treatment period. Epidural PCA was discontinued after 28 days. He did not complain of pain thereafter but reported a slight numb sensation still over the lesion site for a period of time. In conclusion, postherpetic neuralgia in an hiv-infected man was successfully treated with ambulatory therapeutic modality of epidural PCA for 28 days.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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3/22. herpes zoster in the elderly: issues related to geriatrics.

    This article reviews specific clinical and research issues of herpes zoster related to geriatric medicine. Salient epidemiological and clinical issues include the increasing probability of zoster and postherpetic neuralgia with aging, age-related decline in immunity to varicella-zoster virus, the functional and psychosocial impact of zoster on the quality of life of the elderly, illness behavior in elderly patients with zoster, and varicella-zoster virus transmission and control in the nursing home. The role of antiviral therapy, corticosteroids, and analgesics; the measurement and analysis of pain, health-related quality of life, and functional status; and development of the varicella vaccine in the management of zoster in the elderly are also emphasized. Fertile research opportunities exist within these areas for investigators interested in infectious diseases, geriatrics, and other zoster-related disciplines.
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ranking = 3.9502931633927
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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4/22. herpes zoster infection and postherpetic neuralgia.

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the cause of chicken pox, establishes latent infection in sensory ganglia. Reactivation results in zoster (shingles), sometimes complicated by encephalitis (myelitis). Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the major morbidity of zoster. PHN typically increases in frequency with age. The VZV vaccine, which was developed for children, may be effective in enhancing VZV immune reactivity and decreasing zoster in adults. Early antiviral treatment may be effective in decreasing PHN onset. Several other medications may be useful in treating established PHN. A recent report discussed intrathecal steroid use.
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ranking = 2.1456677551947
keywords = zoster
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5/22. Post-herpetic neuralgia case study: optimizing pain control.

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a chronic pain syndrome associated with the reactivation of a primary infection with varicella zoster virus (chicken pox), which leads to a chronic infection of the dorsal root ganglia. Under various clinical circumstances, including immunosuppressive diseases or treatments and certain cancers, reactivation of the infection can occur in adults as shingles. Other factors such as psychological distress and stressful life events also appear to play a role in the onset of shingles and the development of PHN. The most common risk factor for shingles and its potential sequela, PHN, is advanced age. For a significant number of patients, the pain following healing of shingles can persist for months to years; this pain is classified as PHN if it persists longer than 3 months. PHN often leads to depression, disrupted sleep, decreased functioning and increased healthcare utilization. Prompt use of antiviral therapy appears to reduce the period of pain following an episode of shingles by about half and may possibly reduce the overall incidence of PHN. Damage to a variety of neurologic pathways as a result of herpes zoster reactivation suggests that intervention with multiple agents having divergent mechanisms of action is an appropriate treatment approach. Current treatment options aimed at relieving the symptoms of PHN include antidepressants, opioids, anticonvulsants and topical analgesics. It is important for the clinician to establish a baseline pain intensity and character as well as quality of life measures against which to judge the effectiveness of any treatment. This review article features a case study of a patient with PHN to illustrate current diagnostic and treatment approaches.
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ranking = 1.2682084693993
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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6/22. Relief of pain in acute herpes zoster by nerve blocks and possible prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia.

    PURPOSE: This report describes two cases of acute herpes zoster (AHZ) treated by nerve block resulting in immediate pain relief and possible prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). CLINICAL FEATURES: Two elderly females with AHZ of cervical dermatomes and severe pain received deep cervical and greater occipital nerve blocks with a local anesthetic, epinephrine and steroid. In both patients, pain resolved immediately and permanently (one year follow-up) after a single treatment.Case #1: A 79-yr-old female with a mechanical mitral valve and anticoagulated with warfarin presented with AHZ of 17 days duration of the right C2, 3, 4 dermatomes and severe pain. A stellate ganglion block was not performed because of anticoagulation. Rather, a deep cervical root block at C3 and a greater occipital nerve block were performed with bupivacaine, epinephrine and methylprednisolone. No adverse events were evident. Case #2: A 73-yr-old female with a history of osteoarthritis and Meniere's disease presented with AHZ of seven days duration of the left C2, 3, 4 dermatomes and severe pain. Deep cervical root blocks at C3 and C4 and a greater occipital nerve block were performed with bupivacaine, epinephrine and methylprednisolone. Side effects of dizziness, hoarseness, hypertension and Horner's syndrome resolved in a few hours. A mild sensation of itching persisted for two weeks. CONCLUSION: This report illustrates the potential of nerve blocks in severe AHZ to treat acute pain and possibly prevent PHN.
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ranking = 5
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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7/22. Postherpes simplex type 1 neuralgia simulating postherpetic neuralgia.

    patients with prodromal neuralgia associated with recurrent herpes simplex type 1 (HST1) infection and chronic facial pain following years of relapsing HST1 have been described. Chronic neuralgia following a single clinical HST1 infection and simulating postherpetic neuralgia has not been previously reported. Such a case is described: A 49-yr-old woman with a 2-mo history of oral-facial dyskinesia developed burning pain and hypersensitivity of the left side of the tongue, lower gum, and inner cheek, followed 1 day later by a vesicular rash in the same painful distribution. Viral cultures of the lesions identified HST1 but not herpes zoster. cerebrospinal fluid analyses during the vesicular lesion stage and 1 mo later were normal with no viral growth. Oral and facial lesions resolved after 10 days; acyclovir was given for 3 wk. brain and brainstem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram, and brainstem evoked potential studies were normal. Hyperesthesias, allodynia, and burning pain persisted despite nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, codeine and hydrocodone. Oral opioids were administered until sedation occurred, with no relief of pain. The burning pain and hyperesthesia resolved after the 16th day of amitriptyline use, 75 mg/day. A trial off amitriptyline 6 mo later resulted in recurrence of pain, and amitriptyline was restarted with good pain control. Post-HST1 neuralgia may simulate postherpetic neuralgia clinically, and painful symptoms may respond to amitriptyline.
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ranking = 1.1377614242191
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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8/22. Occipital neuralgia evoked by facial herpes zoster infection.

    Occipital neuralgia is a pain syndrome which may usually be induced by spasms of the cervical muscles or trauma to the greater or lesser occipital nerves. We report a patient with occipital neuralgia followed by facial herpes lesion. A 74-year-old male experienced sudden-onset severe headache in the occipital area. The pain was localized to the distribution of the right side of the greater occipital nerve, and palpation of the right greater occipital nerve reproduces the pain. He was diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to ICHD-II criteria. A few days later, the occipital pain was followed by reddening of the skin and the appearance, of varying size, of vesicles on the right side of his face (the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve region). This was diagnosed as herpes zoster. This case represents a combination of facial herpes lesions and pain in the C2 and C3 regions. The pain syndromes can be confusing, and the classic herpes zoster infection should be considered even when no skin lesions are established.
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ranking = 6.0551045696876
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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9/22. Recurrent conjugal neuralgia caused by Herpesvirus hominis type 2.

    leg neuralgia is usually caused by nerve root irritation, and is seldom considered of viral origin. Two married couples had recurrent leg pain in a dermatome distribution. In each episode, after one to three days of neuralgia, herpetic vesicles appear on or near the genitalia. Herpesvirus hominis (HVH) was isolated from vesicles or cervix in three patients and was serologically identified as herpesvirus honinis type 2. Prolonged follow-up has not shown progression of the syndrome or any permanent neurologic damage. Treatment with topical neutral red and photoinactivation has not only reduced local lesion healing time and frequency of attacks, but it has also given prompt relief of neuralgia.
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ranking = 0.02755228484381
keywords = herpes
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10/22. Preherpetic neuralgia.

    We have encountered six zoster patients whose pain preceded rash by 7 to more than 100 days. Pain was severe, burning, and radicular, and located both in dermatomes different from, as well as in, the area of eventual rash. Two patients ultimately developed disseminated zoster with neurologic complications, one of zoster paresis, and the other, a fatal zoster encephalitis; both had been taking long-term, low-dose steroids. A third case of preherpetic neuralgia developed in a patient with prior metastatic carcinoma, and another case in a patient with an earlier episode of brachial neuritis. The final two cases of preherpetic neuralgia developed in individuals with no underlying disease. An extended period of pain before the onset of zoster rash has gone largely unrecognized.
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ranking = 1.3410423469967
keywords = zoster
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