Cases reported "neuralgia"

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1/295. Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.

    OBJECTIVE: To review treatment options for postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). DATA SOURCES: Clinical literature selected by the authors accessed via medline. Search terms included postherpetic neuralgia, capsaicin, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and lidocaine. STUDY SELECTION: Controlled trials relevant to PHN. DATA SYNTHESIS: Traditional analgesics offer little benefit for the treatment of PHN. The best results for pain relief have come from capsaicin and tricyclic antidepressants. anticonvulsants have also been used, although the number of studies evaluating this is limited. More invasive therapies, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and nerve blocks, can be considered if other therapies fail. CONCLUSION: early diagnosis and treatment of herpes zoster may offer patients the best chance of preventing the development of PHN. However, if PHN does develop, the patient should seek treatment early for the best chance of pain relief. ( info)

2/295. Cardiac syncope secondary to glossopharyngeal neuralgia--effectively treated with carbamazepine.

    A 64-year-old male with glossopharyngeal neuralgia, cardiac asystole and grand mal seizures has been relieved of his attacks by intake of 400 mg of carbamazepine per day over a 4-year period. Simultaneous EEG-EKG recordings before and after drinking water document the diagnosis. ( info)

3/295. Acute herpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia in the head and neck: response to gabapentin in five cases.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentations and pharmacologic management of three patients with acute herpetic neuralgia (AHN) and two patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), confined to the head and neck region, are described. methods: Two patients had pain in the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, two had pain confined to the C2-C4 dermatomes, and one patient had C2 pain with radiating and referred pain to the second and third divisions of the trigeminal nerve. RESULTS: Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant drug, was effective in treating these patients, including the two cases of AHN. All patients reported complete pain relief after titration with gabapentin up to 1,800 mg/d. The patients noted a dose-dependent decrease in pain almost immediately after starting gabapentin. Specifically, reduction in the frequency and intensity of allodynia, burning pain, shooting pain, and throbbing pain were noted. None of the patients experienced side effects from the drug. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the results in these patients, blinded, controlled studies are needed to determine the efficacy of gabapentin for treating AHN and PHN. ( info)

4/295. Painful oculomotor nerve palsy - A presenting sign of internal carotid artery stenosis.

    We report a 72-year-old patient presenting acute painful partial left IIIrd nerve palsy with pupillary involvement. Due to the patient's age and mild hyperlipidemia a microangiopathic ischemic origin was assumed after a compressive or inflammatory cause had been excluded by magnetic resonance imaging, blood and cerebrospinal fluid analyses. Carotid ultrasound examination disclosed a high-grade stenosis of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). In the absence of diabetes mellitus, other significant vascular risk factors and leukoencephalopathy indicative of advanced arteriosclerotic disease, we suggest a pathogenetic role of the ICA stenosis in ischemic IIIrd nerve palsy. The frequency of a IIIrd nerve palsy as the presenting symptom in patients with ICA stenosis as well as the frequency of an ICA stenosis being the cause in patients with isolated IIIrd nerve palsy is not well documented in the literature. Both seem to be rare but may be underestimated. We advocate cervicocerebral ultrasound examination in patients presenting IIIrd nerve palsy with no obvious or a presumed ischemic cause. ( info)

5/295. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia referred from a pontine lesion.

    Paroxysmal pain in the form of glossopharyngeal neuralgia is less frequent and less well understood than that of trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnostic confusion can arise especially when both conditions occur in the one patient. We report a patient with a 20-year history of left-sided glossopharyngeal neuralgia with trigger zones in both the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal dermatomal distributions. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a single T2-weighted hyperintense signal in the left pons with no other abnormality. It is postulated that ephaptic transmission between central pain fibers and the trigeminal or glossopharyngeal fibers, which both enter the spinal trigeminal tract, resulted, respectively, in conventional and "referred" glossopharyngeal neuralgia. ( info)

6/295. ophthalmoplegic migraine and periodic migrainous neuralgia, migraine variants with ocular manifestations.

    The spectrum of migraine has been outlined with particular attention to two entities: ophthalmoplegic migraine and Periodic Migrainous Neuralgia. Although quite different in many respects from classical migraine, the relationship of a periodic localized vascular phenomenon giving rise to headache and transient neurologic signs, classify PMN and OPGM as migraine variants. Supportive of this concept, the literature has been reviewed in both entities, and some observations are made on the validity of earlier reports. It is the author's opinion that Raeder's syndrome should be reserved for patients with a lesion localizing in the paratrigeminal area. This does not exclude migraine as an etiologic agent but also recognizes tumors, infections and fractures as being more common. ( info)

7/295. Paraneoplastic painful ulnar neuropathy.

    A 58-year-old woman developed painful, bilateral ulnar neuropathy in conjunction with small cell lung carcinoma and high serum titer of anti-Hu antibody. An incidental stage I plasma cell dyscrasia, with immunoglobulin g kappa monoclonal protein, was also present. Electropysiological assessment excluded a generalized neuropathy, and nerve biopsy showed marked loss of myelinated and small unmyelinated fibers, without inflammatory changes or amyloid deposition. High titers of circulating anti-Hu antibody can be associated with symptoms resembling a paraneoplastic mononeuropathy. ( info)

8/295. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia for postherpetic neuralgia in an hiv-infected patient as a therapeutic ambulatory modality.

    A 43-year-old hiv-positive male was referred to our pain clinic one month after his fourth attack of herpes zoster infection. He complained of intermittent intolerable sharp and lancinating pain accompanied by numbness over the inner aspect of the left upper extremity, left anterior chest wall and the back. physical examination revealed allodynia over the left T1 and T2 dermatomes without any obvious skin lesion. The pain was treated with epidural block made possible by a retention epidural catheter placed via the T2-3 interspace. After the administration of 8 ml of 1% lidocaine in divided doses, the pain was completely relieved for 4 h without significant change of blood pressure or heart rate. A pump (Baxter API) for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) filled with 0.08% bupivacaine was connected to the epidural catheter on the next day and programmed at a basal rate of 2 ml/h, PCA dose 2 ml, lockout interval 15 min, with an one-hour dose limit of 8 ml. He was instructed to report his condition by telephone every weekday. The pump was refilled with drug and the wound of catheter entry was checked and managed every 3 or 4 days. The epidural catheter was replaced every week. During treatment, the pain intensity was controlled in the range from 10 to 0-2 on the visual analogue scale. He was very satisfied with the treatment and reported only slight hypoesthesia over the left upper extremity in the early treatment period. Epidural PCA was discontinued after 28 days. He did not complain of pain thereafter but reported a slight numb sensation still over the lesion site for a period of time. In conclusion, postherpetic neuralgia in an hiv-infected man was successfully treated with ambulatory therapeutic modality of epidural PCA for 28 days. ( info)

9/295. Analgesic effect of oral ketamine in chronic neuropathic pain of spinal origin: a case report.

    ketamine is an injectable anesthetic induction agent that has been reported to have analgesic activity in pain from a variety of mechanisms, but predominantly in neuralgic and dysesthetic neuropathic pain. In this case report we illustrate the effectiveness of ketamine in a patient with neuropathic pain resulting from cauda equina trauma. Among the issues addressed are the role of pretreatment with haloperidol to prevent ketamine-induced psychomimetic effects, the potential for fewer side effects and a need for lower doses when ketamine is administered orally, and the need for further study regarding appropriate monitoring parameters during the titration phase. Oral ketamine can be effective in treatment refractory chronic neuropathic pain of spinal origin. ( info)

10/295. Responses to median and tibial nerve stimulation in patients with chronic neuropathic pain.

    Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields and electrical potentials were measured in eight patients with unilateral neuropathic pain. After median nerve stimulation on the painful side, the amplitudes of the evoked responses were enhanced 2 to 3 times at a latency of about 100 ms compared to the responses of the contralateral, unaffected side. After posterior tibial nerve stimulation an enhancement was found at latencies around 110 ms and 150 ms. The scalp distribution of the magnetic field at the latencies of "abnormal" responses was dipolar and the responses could be ascribed to a current dipole. Three (of the eight) patients underwent spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for their pain. The enhancement of the evoked responses to stimulation of the painful side decreased after spinal cord stimulation. After a long period of spinal cord stimulation only (e.g., a year) during which the patient reported to be pain free, these "abnormal" responses were no longer observed. ( info)
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