Cases reported "Neurilemmoma"

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1/16. A skull base extradural hypoglossal neurilemmoma resected via an extended posterolateral approach.

    The case of a 43-year-old man with a right skull base hypoglossal neurilemmoma excised via the extended posterolateral approach is presented. There is only one previous case of hypoglossal neurilemmoma in the literature. The surgical technique described is a new approach to the posterior skull base involving a suboccipital craniectomy, mastoidectomy and the removal of the lateral process of the atlas. It provides an inferior approach to the jugular foramen and hypoglossal canal that allows the lower cranial nerves to be identified as they exit from their skull base foramina. In the discussion we compare this technique to other surgical approaches previously described for access to the region of the jugular foramen.
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2/16. Hypoglossal neurinoma--two case reports.

    Two patients presented with hypoglossal neurinoma extending both intra- and extracranially. A 63-year-old male presented with right trigeminal neuralgia and hypoglossal nerve paresis. The intracranial part of the tumor was removed totally via a suboccipital craniectomy. Over-coagulation of the venous collaterals, particularly the emissary veins, resulted in dural venous sinus thrombosis and cerebellar infarction. Unfortunately this patient died. A 48-year-old male presented with pareses of the VII, IX, X, XI, and XII cranial nerves and cerebellar sign. The tumor extended both extra- and intracranially, and was completely removed by opening the hypoglossal canal and the jugular foramen without over-coagulation of the venous collaterals. Preservation of the venous collaterals is very important for the prevention of postoperative venous complications.
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3/16. Tic convulsif caused by cerebellopontine angle schwannoma.

    A case is presented of painful tic convulsif caused by schwannoma in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), with right trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral hemifacial spasm. Magnetic resonance images showed a 4 cm round mass displacing the 4th ventricle and distorting the brain stem in the right CPA. The schwannoma, which compressed the fifth and seventh cranial nerves directly, was subtotally removed by a suboccipital craniectomy. Postoperatively, the patient had a complete relief from the hemifacial spasm and marked improvement from trigeminal neuralgia. The painful tic convulsif in this case was probably produced by the tumor compressing and displacing the anterior cerebellar artery directly.
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4/16. Anastomosis between the two facial nerves.

    A case of traumatic facial palsy incurred during the removal of an acoustic neuroma via a sub-occipital craniectomy is presented. The palsy was rehabilitated to a satisfactory degree by anastomosing the normal to the paralyzed facial nerve using an autoplastic peripheral nerve graft of suitable length to join the two.
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5/16. Coexistence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma within pontocerebellar angle schwannoma.

    We present an unusual case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma within pontocerebellar angle schwannoma in 62-year-old woman. The patient suffered for 5 months with V, VII and VIII nerves paresis and with cerebellar ataxia. CT scan demonstrated large hyperdensive mass in cerebellopontine angle translocating cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral trunk. The patient was subjected to surgery and the tumour was removed totally by suboccipital retromastoidal right craniectomy approach. Histopathological examination revealed schwannoma infiltrated with high grade B-cell lymphoma. The patient did well following surgery without any other lymphoma manifestations, and she died from a heart attack 20 months later. Solitary lymphoma of pontocerebellar angle coexisting with schwannoma is an unusual finding, thus our case is the first report.
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6/16. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the medulla oblongata. Case report.

    A 48-year-old man presented with a rare intraparenchymal schwannoma of the medulla oblongata. After he underwent gamma knife surgery, the patient's condition deteriorated and the mass, which at the time was thought to be a glioma, became larger on magnetic resonance images. The mass was resected through a suboccipital craniectomy via the transcerebellomedullary fissure approach. The tumor, which was moderately firm but distinct from the surrounding parenchyma, was removed totally. Postoperative histological and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a benign schwannoma. Brainstem schwannomas can be cured by microneurosurgery. It is important to distinguish these tumors from glioma. The main theories on the cause(s) of this lesion are briefly reviewed.
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7/16. Schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve in the cisterna magna.

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial schwannoma of the accessory nerve can be divided into two types. One is a jugular foramen type arising from the accessory nerve of the jugular foramen, while the other is an intracisternal type, which arises from the spinal root of the accessory nerve and is separate from the jugular foramen. The latter type is rare, and only 9 cases have been reported previously. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 46-year-old female presented with a large, midline mass lesion in the posterior fossa manifesting as foramen magnum syndrome. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a huge tumor with cystic lesion located in the cisterna magna with extension to the C1 spinal level. The tumor was totally removed by a suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. It originated from the spinal root of the right accessory nerve. Temporary slight atrophy of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle was observed, but the patient was free of disease 2 years after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We report a schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve in the cisterna magna. The clinical and neuroradiological findings are discussed with a review of the literature. The initial symptoms were variable without loss of function of the cranial nerve, and the tumor tended to grow in the cisterna magna without laterality. Because of the absence of typical neurologic symptoms, early neuroradiological investigation by MRI is recommended for accurate diagnosis of these tumors.
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8/16. Spinal accessory schwannoma mimicking a tumor of the fourth ventricle: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Spinal accessory schwannomas unassociated with neurofibromatosis are very rare, and only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a spinal accessory schwannoma mimicking a tumor of the fourth ventricle. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old man presented with neck pain after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. There were no neurological deficits, but a computed tomographic scan revealed a large hypodense mass with punctuate calcifications in the fourth ventricle. The tumor exhibited low intensity on the T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan and high intensity on the T2-weighted scan, and it showed inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. INTERVENTION: The tumor was totally removed by a bilateral suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. dissection of the surgical specimen revealed that the tumor had originated from the left spinal accessory nerve. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient experienced transient postoperative cerebellar ataxia but recovered completely. CONCLUSION: Intracisternal-type spinal accessory schwannomas sometimes mimic a tumor of the fourth ventricle. Total surgical resection can be achieved with good outcome.
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9/16. Epithelioid schwannoma of the vestibular nerve.

    Epithelioid schwannomas are rarely encountered intracranially, with only four cases involving the eighth nerve reported in the literature. Histological behaviour ranging from benign to aggressive has been described. We report a 45-year-old woman who presented with right-sided tinnitus and hearing impairment. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumour in the right cerebellopontine angle with intracanalicular extension. The patient underwent retromastoid craniectomy with near-total tumour excision. Microscopical examination confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid schwannoma of the vestibular nerve. Intraoperative findings of sharp circumscription, bland histological appearance, low proliferative activity, coupled with the indolent clinical course, point to the quiescent nature of the lesion in this case.
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10/16. Neurinoma of the spinal accessory nerve: report of a case.

    We report a patient with neurinoma of the spinal accessory nerve, who complained of intermittent occipital headaches, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and unsteady gait. Neurological examination revealed papilledema, bilateral horizontal nystagmus and right cerebellar signs. Computed tomography revealed mild hydrocephalus, a low-attenuated lesion with a faint capsule after enhancement and partial compression of the 4th ventricle in the right posterior fossa. Vertebral angiography revealed no definite tumor vessels or stains. Under the impression of a posterior fossa tumor, a suboccipital craniectomy with a C1 and C2 laminectomy was performed. A 4 x 4 x 2.5 cm3 dumbbell tumor arising from the left spinal accessory nerve at the C2 level was found 4 x 4 x 2.5 cm3. The tumor extended upward through the foramen magnum with upward displacement of both tonsils to the right jugular foramen with slight adhesion to the right IX, X and XI cranial nerves. The left spinal accessory nerve was severed from the pedicle at the C2 level, and the tumor was totally removed. diagnosis was made during the operation. The pathological examination showed neurinoma with cystic degeneration. During the following year, atrophy of the left sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles were noticed. Up to the time of this writing, there had been no clinical recurrence.
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