Cases reported "Neurilemmoma"

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1/14. Giant cauda equina schwannoma. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: To present a rare case of a giant schwannoma of the cauda equina. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Giant spinal schwannoma of the cauda equina, which involves many nerve roots, is rare and there is usually no ossification in the schwannoma. It is unknown whether or not complete excision is preferable if the tumor is located in the lumbar lesion. methods: A 57-year-old woman had a 10-year history of low back pain. Scalloping of the posterior surface of the vertebral bodies from L3 to the sacrum was found. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a giant cauda equina tumor with multiple cysts. Central ossification revealed by computed tomography and an unusual myelogram made the preoperative diagnosis difficult. RESULTS: The patient underwent incomplete removal of the tumor, decompression of cysts, and spinal reconstruction. The tumor was proved to be a schwannoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and she has been almost free from low back pain for 3 years and 4 months. CONCLUSIONS: Giant schwannoma in the lumbar spine region is usually excised incompletely, because complete removal had the risk of sacrificing many nerve roots. In spite of the incomplete removal of the tumor, the risk of recurrence is low.
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2/14. Giant intrasacral cellular schwannoma treated with high sacral amputation.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a man with a gigantic cellular schwannoma in the sacrum treated with high sacral amputation accompanied by careful nerve root-sparing dissection. OBJECTIVES: To describe the atypical clinical course of an intrasacral cellular schwannoma and the surgical procedure of high sacral amputation performed in a way to prevent needless sacrifice of functionally essential nerve roots. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Fundamentally, a cellular schwannoma is a benign tumor, but the clinical course is atypical. The symptoms are mild and the clinicopathologic features often mislead us to make a diagnosis of malignancy. The occurrence rate of intraosseous cellular schwannoma was reported to be 0.2% of all bony tumors, and the main location was the retroperitoneal space in the pelvis. Forty-one cases of giant intrasacral schwannomas have been reported so far. Among them, large sacral schwannoma with anterior cortex erosion and associated intrapelvic extension was extremely rare. methods: The patient presented with a 5-year history of right leg and buttock pain, which did not disturb his daily activities. After a histopathologic diagnosis and a complete set of image studies, high sacral amputation with preservation of uninvolved nerve roots was performed at S1-S2 through a combined anterior and posterior approach. Both S1 nerve roots and the right S2-S3 nerve roots were saved using a threaded saw. The lumbar spine was stabilized to the pelvic girdle using spinal instrumentation with posterolateral fusion. RESULTS: Eighteen months after the tumor was resected the patient had a very good clinical outcome, and there were no radiologic signs of instability or recurrence of the tumor. Locomotor function of both lower extremities and bowel and urinary functions were well maintained. The patient returned to his previous work. CONCLUSIONS: High sacral amputation following a combined anteroposterior approach provided good results without causing any disability. A detailed preoperative planning and careful dissection of uninvolved nerve roots prevented unnecessary neurologic impairment in locomotion and the detrusor and anorectal function.
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3/14. Treatment of giant ancient pelvic schwannoma.

    A 32-year-old patient presented with urinary retention and chronic constipation. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 10 x 11cm encapsulated tumor with cystic areas lying ventral to the sacrum. There was no evidence of invasion of bladder or rectum. At laparotomy, a 10 x 11 cm mass was found in the left pelvis. Final pathology revealed an ancient schwannoma. In most large series, 80% to 90% of the primary retroperitoneal tumors are malignant. Retroperitoneal schwannomas can be benign or malignant, roughly half of the reported cases showed malignancy. Benign schwannomas may arise along the course of any myelinated nerve, with the acoustic neuroma being the most frequent site. Immunostaining showed a strong expression of S-100 protein. The staining for this protein is helpful for differentiation of a benign schwannoma from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and from other benign spindle cell tumors. The treatment of choice for benign schwannomas is complete excision. recurrence or persistence seems to be associated with incomplete resection, which occurred in 10% of the reported cases. After surgery, the patient had normal erection, normal micturition, and normal defecation but no symptoms of motor and sensory disturbances.
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4/14. Nerve sheath tumors involving the sacrum. Case report and classification scheme.

    Nerve sheath tumors that involve the sacrum are rare. Delayed presentation is common because of their slow-growing nature, the permissive surrounding anatomical environment, and nonspecific symptoms. Consequently, these tumors are usually of considerable size at the time of diagnosis. The authors discuss a case of a sacral nerve sheath tumor. They also propose a classification scheme for these tumors based on their location with respect to the sacrum into three types (Types I-III). Type I tumors are confined to the sacrum; Type II originate within the sacrum but then locally metastasize through the anterior and posterior sacral walls into the presacral and subcutaneous spaces, respectively; and Type III are located primarily in the presacral/retroperitoneal area. The overwhelming majority of sacral nerve sheath tumors are schwannomas. Neurofibromas and malignant nerve sheath tumors are exceedingly rare. Regardless of their histological features, the goal of treatment is complete excision. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be used in patients in whom resection was subtotal. Approaches to the sacrum can generally be classified as anterior or posterior. Type I tumors may be resected via a posterior approach alone, Type III may require an anterior approach, and Type II tumors usually require combined anterior-posterior surgery.
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5/14. Pelvic ring reconstruction with a vascularized pedicle iliac bone graft for a large sacral schwannoma.

    A case of pelvic ring reconstruction with a vascularized pedicle iliac bone graft for removal of a huge sacral schwannoma is reported. It is necessary to reconstruct a pelvic ring when its integrity is impaired. Spinal instrumentation is essential for a temporary stability of the pelvic ring in the course of complete healing, which at times results in instrumentation failure. Several cases of pelvic ring reconstruction using vascularized fibular bone grafts have also indicated positive results attributable to their good blood circulation, but techniques with them are relatively complicated. We applied a vascularized pedicle iliac bone graft to the pelvic ring reconstruction after resection of a huge sacral schwannoma. When a stable pelvic ring was regained by using a lumbosacral instrumentation technique, a tricortical iliac bone graft with its vascular pedicle was harvested, transported into the dead space, and tied to the right residual sacrum and the left ilium. The vascularized graft healed rapidly, and continuity of the pelvic ring was regained. This method is effective for pelvic ring reconstruction in that it does not require microvascular techniques and rapid bone healing can be obtained.
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6/14. Large presacral schwannoma after radical prostatectomy.

    A 56-year-old man presented with long-standing, mild urinary frequency 6 years after radical prostatectomy. Pathologic assessment showed presence of organ confined prostate cancer (pT2a), Gleason 6 (3 3). Since the time of surgery, PSA level was undetectable and the patient remained without evidence of recurrent disease. However, digital rectal examination revealed the presence of a very large mass palpable on the anterior rectal wall. Therefore, the patient underwent abdominal/pelvic MRI which demonstrated presence of a solid, well-circumscribed pelvic mass extending from the level of the sacrum posteriorly to the anterior abdominal wall. Histologic examination of percutaneous biopsy of the mass was suggestive of schwannoma. The patient underwent laparotomic excision of the mass, which was confirmed to be a schwannoma, with its characteristic slender spill cells and elongate nuclei. No intra-operative complication was reported. The patient has no evidence of recurrence with complete resolution of urinary symptom one year after surgery.
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7/14. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of skull--single case report.

    Intraosseous neurilemmoma is a rare benign tumour of the bone with characteristic radiological and histological features. The most common places of this tumor are mandible, sacrum and vertebral bodies. A case of a not previously reported location of this tumor in the vault of the skull is presented.
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8/14. Presacral neurilemoma (schwannoma)--report of a rare case.

    A rare case of presacral neurilemoma is reported herein. Despite the large size of the tumor and the extensive destruction of the sacrum, the patient was almost asymptomatic. Accurate diagnosis depends on careful rectal examination and computerized axial tomography is the most useful single investigation. Surgery is the only treatment and for large lesions, the abdominal approach is usually preferred. recurrence is rare and patients live a long, symptom free life even after partial resection.
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9/14. Malignant neurilemmoma of left atrium.

    A 31-year-old woman, whose chief complaint was back pain, was found to have an echocardiographic abnormality suggestive of a left atrial myxoma. angiography clearly showed a large radiolucent mass protruding from the left atrium into the left ventricle during diastole. x-rays of the sacrum disclosed the presence of a malignant tumour. biopsy specimens taken from the tumour in the sacral plexus showed a malignant neurilemmoma. Despite extensive chemotherapy, widespread metastases developed and the patient died four months after admission. Necropsy disclosed three discrete tumours in the left atrium, which were found to be malignant neurilemmoma, shown on histology to be metastases from the primary in the sacral plexus.
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10/14. Giant intrasacral schwannoma: an unusual cause of lumbrosacral radiculopathy.

    Sacral schwannoma is a rare lesion (23 reported cases) with a tendency to reach large proportions. Symptoms are back and leg pain, leg weakness, hypoesthesias, paresthesias, constipation, and incontinence. The peak incidence is between ages 30 and 50. Radiographs of the sacrum are abnormal in nearly all cases. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may reveal large lesions with bony erosion and involvement of the soft tissues. The treatment of this lesion is complete removal, which is curative.
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