Cases reported "Neuroaxonal Dystrophies"

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1/4. Neuroaxonal leukodystrophy associated with congenital cutis laxa: report of an autopsy case.

    A male patient, who was born with congenital cutis laxa characterized by cutaneous laxity due to the degeneration of elastic fibers, presented with an arrest of mental and motor development at the age of 3 years. The progressive decline of the psychomotor abilities led to the patient's death at the age of 4 years and 9 months. An autopsy revealed extensive white matter degeneration, characterized by the formation of numerous neuroaxonal spheroids and a diffuse loss of axons and myelin sheaths. The centrum semiovale and the cerebellar white matter were the most severely affected. The ultrastructure of the spheroids was consistent with a dystrophic type of axonal swelling. neurons of the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and some brain stem nuclei were lost in moderate to severe degrees, and there were relatively few neuroaxonal spheroids in the gray matter. The pallidum and substantia nigra were well preserved. Neuroaxonal leukodystrophy, in which the spheroid formation predominantly affects the white matter, is the rarest variant of primary neuroaxonal dystrophies, and there are very few reports of autopsied cases. Among the reported cases, two Japanese siblings had congenital skin lesions similar to those of our case. The unique association of neuroaxonal leukodystrophy and congenital cutis laxa may form a distinct variant in this disease category.
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2/4. Proton MR spectroscopy reveals lactate in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD).

    Changes of cerebral metabolites detected by proton MR spectroscopy in two cases of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy are described. A 6 11/12-year-old boy and a girl (aged 4 1/12 years at the first and 5 2/12 years at the second examination) with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the basal ganglia. The signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex was increased on T2-weighted, proton density, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The long echo time (135 ms) spectra revealed the presence of lactate in the basal ganglia of both cases in all investigations. The N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio was reduced in Case 1 and in the second investigation of Case 2. The choline/creatine ratio was always increased. As the diagnosis of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is made by a synopsis of various clinical, neuropathological, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological data, the presence of lactate in the basal ganglia spectra may help to narrow down the diagnosis and can support the decision to perform more invasive diagnostic procedures (such as biopsies of skin, conjunctiva or even of the brain).
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3/4. Distal infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy--a new familial variant with perineuronal argyrophilic bodies.

    We report on two sisters with an infantile onset of dyskinetic movements, tonic spasms, seizures and apneic spells. The condition deteriorated to a hypotonic "burnt out" stage by the age of 3 years in the older sister and to a stable dyskinetic condition by the age of 2.5 years in the younger one. A skin biopsy from the older sister revealed myelinated nerve fibers crowded with neurofilaments. The extensive investigation for neurometabolic disorder, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and ophthalmological and neurophysiological examinations were not especially revealing. The older sister died at the age of 3 years. The autopsy revealed no apparent loss of nerve cells in the brain and no sign of storage disease. However, silver-stained coarse granules, immunopositive for neurofilament polypeptide, were found around nerve cell bodies in the cortex and in the basal ganglia. Electron microscopy revealed perineuronal membrane-bound profiles filled with filaments. silver-stained axonal torpedoes were found in the cerebellum, but there were no spheroids. The substantia nigra, the locus ceruleus and the nucleus basalis of Meynert showed extensive perineuronal and perivascular swelling. homovanillic acid was severely reduced, while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and hydroxymethylphenyl glycol were normal in the cerebrospinal fluid of the severely affected, autopsied case. The two cases are considered to represent a new form of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, characterized by the degeneration of perineuronal terminals in the cerebral cortex and in the basal ganglia, as well as by axonal degeneration in the cerebellum and peripheral nerves.
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4/4. diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    A 7-month-old girl with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is reported. In diffusion MRI, the pyramidal tracts and dentate nuclei had high signal on b = 1,000 s/mm2 images and low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. This pattern likely reflected the presence of abnormal (dystrophic) axons with restricted mobility of water molecules. A reverse pattern was evident in the cerebellar cortex with high ADC values. This was likely a reflection of dysmyelination or lack of myelination.
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